Fifth round of the Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey: Living in a new era of uncertainty (vol 5, July 2022)

Eurofound, Author(s): Ahrendt, Daphne; Consolini, Michele; Mascherini, Massimiliano; Sándor, Eszter

The fifth round of Eurofound's e-survey, fielded from 25 March to 2 May 2022, sheds light on the social and economic situation of people across Europe two years after COVID-19 was first detected on the European continent. It also explores the reality of living in a new era of uncertainty caused by the war in Ukraine, inflation, and rising energy prices.



 Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19), Delivering for youth: How governments can put young people at the centre of the recovery

OECD (2022)

Governments across the OECD are investing significant resources to address the immediate and long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the crisis has affected different age groups differently and that its repercussions will be felt by many for decades to come, it is crucial to adopt an integrated public governance approach to COVID-19 response and recovery efforts. This policy brief presents the views of a non-representative sample of 151 youth organisations from 72 countries, including 100 youth organisations based in 36 OECD countries, on how young people have been experiencing the crisis and related government action. It is complemented by an analysis of the measures adopted across 34 OECD countries and provides recommendations on how to deliver a fair, inclusive and resilient recovery for young people through a range of public governance approaches.



 This is how COVID-19 hit youth employment in Europe - and how it can recover


A brief summary of what's the World Economic Forum doing to accelerate action on Workforce and Employment with particular focus on young people.



 Impact of COVID-19 on young people in the EU, Publications Office of the European Union (vol 4, Nov 2021)

Eurofound, Luxembourg

This report provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of the pandemic on young people in the European Union (EU), including a description of their situation in the labour market before the pandemic and shortly after. It presents an overview of the efforts of governments and EU-level policymakers to protect young people from the effects of the crisis and analyses the impact of the pandemic on this group in terms of job loss, living conditions and mental well-being.



 What just happened? COVID-19 lockdowns and change in the labour market, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Eurofound and European Commission Joint Research Centre

This report describes the employment and working time developments in the EU through the first year of the crisis and examines how they differed by sector and occupation. It explores the categories of workers who were most affected – primarily temporary workers, young workers and low-paid female workers. It also assesses the extent to which remote working served as a buffer during the crisis, preserving jobs that might otherwise have been lost.



 Youth employment in times of COVID. A global review of COVID-19 policy responses to tackle (un)employment and disadvantage among young people.

ILO, Barford, A., Coutts, A., and Sahai, G.

The report provides a snapshot account of the types of government response to the social and economic impacts of the pandemic, policy and evidence gaps, and future challenges. Key gaps in the response have also been detailed, such as a limited policy focus on gendered dimensions of the pandemic impact. The specific challenges facing young people have also often been overlooked in the general social and economic response policies.



 Modelling of Social Policy and Initiatives under COVID-19: Rural NEET Youth Case Study

Kvieskienė, G., Ivanova I., Trasberg, K. Stasytyte, V. and Celiešiene, E. 

NEET (Not in Education, Employment, or Training) youth rates in Europe are generally higher in rural regions than in urban areas and the share in rural regions is constantly increasing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, young people became even more vulnerable as they experienced social exclusion and mental health problems. The objective of this paper is to analyse NEET youth-related statistics in Europe and distinguish positive initiatives for young people in rural areas of the Baltic countries to encourage positive emotions and willingness to learn. Statistical analysis and case study methods were employed. Data on youth unemployment, NEET youth by age and gender, and poverty and social exclusion of young people, is analysed. Social policy initiatives in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, mainly from rural municipalities, are presented and discussed. This research determines the key issues related to NEET youth and proposes initiatives to overcome existing problems among young people. Such social initiatives aim to promote positive social emotions of youth, promote their inclusion in society, and foster regional sustainability.



Social protection of non-standard workers and the self-employed during the pandemic

European Trade Union Institute

The Covid‑19 pandemic severely affected some categories of non-standard workers, and particularly the self‑employed. The emergency measures cushioned the potentially disastrous effect on their social circumstances, but undeniably highlighted even more the gaps in their access and entitlement to social protection benefits. this edited volume comprises eight country case studies: Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Romania and Sweden. These case studies have been produced by independent national experts. They looked into the country-specific situation regarding access to social protection for these categories of workers during the pandemic and provide a detailed description of the measures taken regarding unemployment benefits, sickness benefits and leave, as well as an initial assessment of their effects. 



 What have countries done to support young people in the COVID-19 crisis?


The policy brief  provides an overview of the measures that countries have put in place to avoid a long-lasting negative impact on the employment prospects and aspirations of young people.



 Youth in Europe: Effects of COVID-19 on their economic and social situation

European Parliament

The report presents an analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, providing updated information on their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It concludes that Although long-lasting effects on the social situation and mental well-being of young people are still subject to uncertainty, there are reasons to believe that the negative consequences of COVID-19 crisis on youth employment might be less severe than in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. However, the reports also finds that a prolonged crisis increases the risk of structural unemployment among young people.
Although digital technology enabled distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation also revealed disparities when it comes to access to digital devices and connectivity, digital literacy of learners, educators, and carers which must be dealt with.



 An Unequal Crisis: The impact of the pandemic on the youth labour market

Youth Futures Foundation and Institute for Employment Studies (IES)

Research carried out by the Institute for Employment Studies (IES) found that under 24-year-olds account for almost half of the total fall in employment, with those from ethnic minority backgrounds disproportionately affected. Young people typically work in occupations that have been impacted most by the pandemic making them most vulnerable to being laid off. At the same time, the fall in hires and more people chasing fewer jobs means young people are struggling to enter the job market



 Gender equality and the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (Published May 26, 2021)

EIGE (European Institute for Gender Equality)

This study aims to provide a more detailed and timely picture of the short-term and long-term gender equality challenges faced by the EU as a result of the Covid-19 crisis, focusing on the labour market situation, working arrangements and incomes, the impact on gender roles and the work–life balance of workers and the role of employment-supporting factors and recovery measures.



Beyond lockdown - the ‘pandemic scar’ on young people The social, economic and mental health impact of COVID-19 on young people in Europe 

European Youth Forum, 2021

This research outlined in this report aimed to analyse and identify the youth-specific medium and long-term impacts of COVID-19 in Europe and to identify promising practices as well as gaps in the response of institutions and national governments. These findings highlight the deep social, economic, but also mental health challenges and barriers young people are facing as a result of the current crisis. Looking at the progression of the situation of young people since the beginning of the pandemic, it demonstrated the need for a youth-inclusive recovery and further policy measures to address the long-term consequences of the pandemic on young people’s education, work and mental health. This is the only way to ensure that the ‘pandemic scar’ is not one that young people carry for the rest of their lives. 



 Living and working in Europe 2020 (Published May 7, 2021)

Eurofound. Helen Burke

The Eurofound survey provides insights on the impact of COVID 19 on the lieve and work of Europeans. In particular summarises findings regarding developments in social and economic life – including workplace practices, social dialogue, gender equality and access to public services



 Lowered payroll taxes for young people

Eurofound COVID-19 EU Policy Watch. Measures in Sweden.

The measure means employers' social security contributions (payroll tax) for people aged 19 to 23 will be reduced during the period January 2021 to March 2023. The original level of 31.42 percent is thereby lowered to 19.73% for this particular age group. The reduction is applicable to employees in the age group earning no more than SEK 25,000 per month (€2,500). For those earning more, the original rate applies. The reduction was originally planned to take effect from April 2021, but was brought forward to include all of 2021 (and last until April 2023) through an extra amendment budget. The cost of the measure is estimate to SEK 9 billion for 2021-2022, and an additional SEK 1.4 billion for the first quarter of 2023.



 Exceptional aid for the recruitment of work-study students

Eurofound COVID-19 EU Policy Watch. Measures in France.

The measure is aimed at increasing of hiring of young people.



 COVID-19 and child labour: A time of crisis, a time to act

International Labour Organization (ILO) & UNICEF

With the COVID-19 pandemic, we face the risk of reverting years of progress. We may see an increase in child labour for the first time in 20 years. This is why ILO and UNICEF decided to look into the ways the crisis is affecting child labour.



 Living, working and COVID-19 (Update April 2021): Mental health and trust decline across EU as pandemic enters another year

Eurofound (Authors: Ahrendt, Daphne; Mascherini, Massimiliano; Nivakoski, Sanna; Sándor, Eszter)

The third round of Eurofound's e-survey, fielded in February and March 2021, sheds light on the social and economic situation of people across Europe following nearly a full year of living with COVID-19 restrictions. This report analyses the main findings and tracks ongoing developments and trends across the 27 EU Member States since the survey was first launched in April 2020. It pinpoints issues that have surfaced over the course of the pandemic, such as increased job insecurity due to the threat of job loss, decline in mental well-being levels, erosion of recent gains in gender equality, fall in trust levels vis-à-vis institutions, deterioration of work–life balance and growth of vaccine hesitancy. The results of the survey highlight the need for a holistic approach to support all the groups hit hard by the crisis in order to prevent them from falling further behind.



 Eurofound: Living, working and COVID-19


Eurofound Report covers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for young European people in the fields of employment, work-life balance, the use of telework, quality of life, health and safety and trust in institutions. It also includes an assessment of the impact of the pandemic on different socioeconomic groups and countries and highlights some aspects that need to be improved, while including some recommendations.



 Global report: Youth & Covid-19: Impacts on Jobs, Education, Rights and Mental Wellbeing

ILO&Global Initiative on Decent Jobs for Youth (DJY)

Report of the survey findings on the impact of the pandemic on the rights of young people in the areas of employment, education, mental well-being, rights and social activism, including youth policy responses to the crisis in those matters, and their perceptions on the pandemic. It additionally provides some reflections on the need to invest in the youth.



 YOUTH AT RISK: Analysis of the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 on Spain’s young population

Spanish Youth Institute

This study evaluates the impact of the crisis on the economic and youth labour market for young people. It compares the situation of youth against that of the rest of the population in Spain during lockdown in the areas of employment, economic activity and other indicators, and evaluates the results obtained.



 The United Nations Youth Flash Special issue on COVID-19 and Youth

United Nations Youth Flash, Department of Economic and Social Affairs

This report presents the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19, focusing on employment, while noting the social policy responses necessary to tackle the impact of the pandemic in young people, and youth responses to the crisis.



 Breaking Down the Numbers: What Does COVID-19 Mean for Youth Unemployment?

Mathematica for the Schultz Family Foundation

This study analyses the impact of the pandemic on youth unemployment in the USA. The study offers an analysis of the unemployment situation before and during the pandemic, the effects it has had on the situation as well as an assessment of the economic vulnerability of young people during the crisis.



 Labour market change. COVID-19: Policy responses across Europe


This report summarises the unprecedented effects that Covid-19 has had on the lives of individuals and societies, including on the economy and labour markets. The different measures adopted at EU level to support and mitigate the social and economic effects on jobs, businesses, workers and citizens are presented.



 COVID-19 and the career prospects of young people

Institute for Fiscal Studies

This report focuses on the economic consequences and impact that the pandemic has had on young people in the UK. It emphasises the economic effects on employment, career progression and salary.



 Preventing exclusion from the labour market: Tackling the COVID-19 youth employment crisis

 International Labour Organization (ILO)

The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved from a health crisis into the worst economic and labour market downturn since at least the Second World War. Preliminary data point to a severe impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economies and labour markets around the world for many years to come. The crisis is likely to be particularly severe for youth1 across three dimensions: (1) disruptions to education, training and work-based learning; (2) increased difficulties for young jobseekers and new labour market entrants; and (3) job and income losses, along with deteriorating quality of employment.



 Social Dialogue, Skills and COVID-19

 International Labour Organization (ILO)

This second Global Deal Flagship Report illustrates the importance of social dialogue in managing the consequences of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as the benefits of involving social partners in adult-learning systems to prepare for the future of work.



 Practical Guide on Teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond

 International Labour Organization (ILO)

The purpose of the Guide is to provide practical and actionable recommendations for effective teleworking that are applicable to a broad range of actors; to support policymakers in updating existing policies; and to provide a flexible framework through which both private enterprises and public sector organizations can develop or update their own teleworking policies and practices. The Guide also includes a number of case examples regarding how employers and policymakers have been handling teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic and addresses the lessons learned from the recent months that are relevant for the future of teleworking arrangements beyond the pandemic; and a list of available tools and resources.



 Proposal for a Joint Employment Report 2021

European Commission

The Joint Employment Report provides an annual overview of key employment and social developments in Europe as well as EU countries' reform actions. It also monitors Member States' performance in relation to the Social Scoreboard set up in the context of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The initial proposal for this report by the European Commission is part of the Autumn package, which includes the Annual Sustainable Growth Strategy launching the European Semester cycle.



 Labour market in the light of the COVID 19 pandemic - quarterly statistics


This online publication contains articles on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labour market, showing quarterly data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). Its aim is to report on some specific aspects of the labour market that may have been impacted, such as the labour market slack, which refers to all unmet needs for employment (including the unemployment), the employment, the absences from work and the number of hours worked before and during the crisis. An additional article is dedicated to the methodological issues of sample size and non-response in the LFS quarterly data collection.



 COVID-19 Crisis: How to Avoid a ‘Lost Generation’


The spread of the coronavirus has made economic conditions difficult in many economic areas and has led to skyrocketing youth unemployment in most European countries. On the basis of simple model calculations, we estimate the consequences of the COVID-19 shutdown on youth unemployment in the European Union for the year 2020. According to our estimations, youth unemployment will increase from 2.8 to 4.8 million. The youth unemployment rate will increase to 26%, and the number of young people not in education, employment and training (NEET) will increase from 4.7 to 6.7 million. Policymakers at the national and international level should react as quickly as possible and make great efforts to avoid these negative scenarios. We suggest the introduction of a new European Youth Guarantee to ensure fiscal relief for those countries that suffer the most economically. It should be financed jointly by the EU and the respective member states. We suggest a new formula-based co-financing model in order to guarantee solidarity between the member states.



 Living, working and COVID-19 (vol 2, September 2020)


This report presents the findings of the most recent Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, carried out by Eurofound to capture the far-reaching implications of the pandemic for the way people live and work across Europe. The results confirm the upsurge in teleworking across all countries during the COVID-19 pandemic that has been documented elsewhere, and the report explores what this means for work–life balance and elements of job quality.



 Escaping the growth and jobs treadmill

European Youth Forum

The devastating consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labour market, people’s livelihoods, wellbeing and the environment raise an important question: how do we get out of this mess? The European Youth Forum and the European Environmental Bureau teamed up to outline that there is an alternative to going back to “normal” and one that will avoid the cliff edge towards which we are accelerating.



 Preventing a 'lockdown generation' in Europe and Central Asia, Building resilient societies with young people in the era of COVID-19

UNICEF, European Training Foundation (ETF)

UNICEF and the European Training Foundation (ETF) have partnered to examine the challenges, opportunities and – most importantly – the sentiments and views of young people concerning their current and future prospects in the time of COVID-19. A jointly published report builds on wide-ranging consultations with more than 15,000 adolescents and young people in the Region which covered their opinions on lockdown restrictions, access to and participation in education, learning outcomes and the quality of teaching, as well as their views on mobility, entrepreneurship and participation, among other issues. For many young people in the Europe and Central Asia Region, COVID-19 interrupted their schooling, left them jobless, and has made it more difficult to integrate into the labour market. Facing school closures and uncertainty about their futures, young people say that they feel isolated and are dealing with levels of stress, anxiety and depression. Although young people have been among those most socially affected by the COVID-19 pandemic but, at the same time, they proven to be the most prepared to cope with the quick shift towards virtual environments that the pandemic created. When it comes to the future, the report captures young people’s hopes and fears about the profound socioeconomic changes, as well their aspirations and practical recommendations to re-imagine a more inclusive, equitable, peaceful, sustainable and prosperous future.