The Council of Europe has co-operated with the individual countries of Central Asia since the late 1990s. This co-operation has been enhanced through the implementation of the Policy for Neighbourhood Regions established by the Council of Europe in 2011. The exceptional feature of the present Programme is that all its Actions contain a regional dimension, complemented by the co-operation on the national level. This approach allows to address more effectively common regional challenges in a co-ordinated manner and, at the same time, to fine-tune the Council of Europe’s involvement in accordance with local needs and contexts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.