Intermediate: how to analyse the content and form of hate speech

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Analysing this part is a bit more complicated so your experience will play a crucial role in determining the content and form of the hate speech.

 Criteria to be considered 

Degree to which the expression is provocative or aggressiveness of the message

The answer options, in order of severity: “Low degree of violence”, “Moderate degree of violence”, “High degree of violence”. You should pay attention to whether the speech contained loaded words known to evoke negative reactions in the audience towards the targeted group.

Form taken by the expression

Some forms of expression benefit from a higher degree of protection than others (e.g. artistic expressions, religious expressions, academic discourse, etc.).

However, there are cases where hate speech is disguised as academic discourse by citing obscure theories generally considered by the academic community as untrustworthy or backed by references to religious texts disguised as religious expressions.

How direct was the message?

The expression that is being analysed can be openly hateful, or it can try to just suggest the hateful message by using metaphors or other figures of styles. Openly hateful messages containing calls for action tend to be more easily understood as such by the audiences. Therefore, they also tend to be more severe than the hidden ones. The answer options we are proposing are “Direct” and “Indirect”.

Legal status of hate message

Some countries have clear provisions on what types of hate speech are punishable under criminal law. To see a collection of national law provisions on this topic, you can access the country-specific information provided by the members of the International Network against Cyber Hate (INACH).