Glossary on youth
- Young Offender
A young offender is a young person who has been cautioned or convicted for a criminal offence. Each country has its own age of criminal responsibility and its own laws and practices with regards to the prosecution of young people. In many European countries young offenders will be prosecuted in a youth court and, if convicted, will either be given community rehabilitation or will be sentenced to time in a specialist young offenders’ institution.
See also: vulnerable young people; youth justice
- Young People
Young people are persons 13 – 30 years old. For the purposes of European youth policies this age is used both by the European Commission and Council of Europe.
REF: Council of Europe and European Commission Research Partnership: Report of the Research Seminar ‘The Youth Sector and Non-formal Education/Learning: working to make lifelong learning a reality and contributing to the Third Sector', Strasbourg 28-30 April 2004.
See also: Council of Europe; European Commission
- Young People from Disadvantaged Neighborhoods
Young people who live in the areas or communities experiencing poverty, deprivation, violence, exclusion, marginalisation, a lack of opportunities, poor living conditions, a degraded environment and vulnerability to a higher degree than the majority of the population. Disadvantaged neighbourhoods lack important infrastructure and services for young people, which has negative impacts on their life chances and future development. Such infrastructure and services include youth centres, schools and other education amenities, sport and cultural facilities, public meeting spaces, health centres, employment and training agencies, as well as local businesses and community initiatives.
Young people living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience various and multiple forms of barriers and social disadvantage, including a lack of economic, cultural, and social resources; a lack of access to or success in education; a lack of quality health services for prevention and care; a lack of training or employment; a lack of perspectives for the future; a greater risk of homelessness, conflict with the law, sexual exploitation and/or violence and substance abuse, etc. Young people living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods often experience isolation and segregation, whether by intent or by neglect. Furthermore, some young people from certain categories could become disadvantaged young people, including young people growing up in care or without their families; young people from migrant backgrounds or from ethnic minorities; Roma young people; young people with disabilities, mental health problems or living with illness and young people living in segregated or isolated communities are much more likely to experience social disadvantages than other young people. Disadvantaged young people are among the most marginalised in society and require special support measures to access the same opportunities as their peers.
REF: Recommendation CM/Rec(2015)3 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 21 January 2015, Access of Young People from Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods to Social Rights;
Enter! Access to Social Rights for Young People from Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods, Project Report 2009-2012, by lngrid Ramberg, Council of Europe, first edition 2013, second edition 2015, available at https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680666772
See also: discrimination; social exclusion; marginalisation of young people
- Young people full potential
This frequently used term in national and international youth policies is closely related to the perspective of seeing young people as a resource in society. Young people are considered as valuable citizens in their own right and capacity. Thus, the natural focus of a youth policy is to ensure the active participation of all young people in society and to explore and find ways that empower them to realise their full potential as citizens. It also supports young people in living life appropriate to their age group and encouraging their independence and critical thinking. The term refers as well to the obligation that the actors at all levels (international, national, regional and local) have towards helping to transform young people's’ potential, creativity, talents, initiative and social responsibility, through the acquisition and development of the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. For this purpose, the stakeholders are to provide individual and group support to young people and to support the development of the framework that could facilitate the youth transitions, ensuring as well the development of essential skills such as teamwork, communication, leadership, flexibility and responsiveness as well as creativity and innovation, required then on the labour market.
A safe and successful passage from adolescence into adulthood is the right of every young person. This right can only be fulfilled if families and societies make focused investments and provide opportunities to ensure that youth progressively develop the knowledge, skills and resilience needed for a healthy, productive and fulfilling life. One of the main tasks of youth policy is to provide all young persons to reach their full potential as skilled, creative and resilient people. Therefore, the governments should see young people as a resource and the focus of youth policy should be to facilitate young people’s opportunities to realise their full potential as citizens. A government has a special responsibility to ensure that more vulnerable young people enjoy the rights and opportunities they are entitled to.
REF: Denstad F. (2009) Youth policy manual: How to develop a national youth strategy, Council of Europe publishing, available at http://pjp-eu.coe.int/en/web/youth-partnership/youth-policy-manual-how-to-develop-a-national-youth-strategy
European Commission, Developing the creative and innovative potential of young people through non-formal learning in ways that are relevant to employability, http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/youth/news/2014/documents/report-creative-potential_en.pdf, Last retrieved 03/01/2017.
See also: young people, young people with fewer opportunities.
- Young People with Fewer Opportunities
Young people with fewer opportunities are young people that are at a disadvantage compared to their peers because they face one or more of the situations and obstacles. These can be either social, economic or geographical obstacles, disabilities, educational difficulties, cultural differences or health problems.
REF: European Commission (2007): Inclusion strategy of the “Youth in Action” programme (2007-2013), Brussels.
See also: Cultural differences; disabilities; educational difficulties; social exclusion; social obstacles; geographical obstacles; vulnerable young people
- Youth Council
Youth councils are a form of youth involvement in a participatory decision making process. There are various forms of youth councils depending on their structure, on how they are elected, on which level they exist, which young people or groups of young people they represent.
Youth councils can exist on local/communal, regional, national, international level but also on the level of institutions or organisations (like schools, universities, unions) as well as representative bodies for certain groups of young people (e.g. Roma). Furthermore, the involvement of youth councils in decision making processes can differ strongly - from information to consultation or even budgeting competences.
See also: Competency; co-production; National Youth Councils; participation; participation – ladder; young people; youth parliament
- Youth Entrepreneurship
Within the eight key competencies for lifelong learning (Education and Training 2010), one of the competencies is the sense of initiative and entrepreneurship. Young people should be offered opportunities to establish their own social and commercial activity. The specified activity/activities established also have an impact on the community.
REF: European Union (n.d.): Summaries of EU legislation.
See also: competencies; lifelong learning; training; young people
- Youth Facilitator
The youth facilitator helps groups of youngsters to clearly understand their common goals and objectives and to plan their activities. During the whole process, the role of the youth facilitator is only to facilitate group processes and dynamics, staying neutral during the facilitation process. The facilitator also helps the group to reach an agreement and to decide upon the final version of the action plan set.
REF: Asociación Posibilidades de Futuro (n.d.): Facilitators Survival Kit. Basic Facilitation Handbook.
See also: Action plan
- Youth Guarantee
Youth Guarantee is tackling youth unemployment, aiming at offering young employees support for four months after they have left formal education, or when they have become unemployed. The principle of the Youth Guarantee has been endorsed by the EU Member States in April 2013, most of them creating their own national action plans for implementing the principle, with the support of the European Commission.
In the European Union, the Youth Guarantee is defined as:
“a situation in which young people receive a good-quality offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within a period of four months of becoming unemployed or leaving formal education. An offer of continued education could also encompass quality training programs leading to a recognized vocational qualification”.
REF: Council of Europe: Recommendation of 22 April 2013 on establishing a Youth Guarantee (2013/C 120/01) and European Commission, Youth Guarantee.
See also: European Commission; formal education; NEET; unemployment; Youth on the Move; Youthpass; youth unemployment rate
- Youth Information and Counselling
The primary concern is to respond to any questions or needs raised by young people. As these cover a wide range of issues and problems, youth information and counselling is organised either to respond directly on a large number of topics or to refer the user to an organisation or service which is competent in the desired area.
The service may provide other services which are complementary to its basic information and counselling role, such as youth discount cards, tickets for concerts and transport services, cheap accommodation, rooms or equipment for youth activities, and help in organising youth projects. It may also make available information and information materials from a wide range of sources (official administrations, associations, commercial services) which promote activities and opportunities aimed at young people.
Youth and counselling information services can also provide information on careers guidance, studies and scholarships, jobs and training, general health matters, relationships and sexuality, social security benefits, rights of young people, consumer rights, legal advice, European opportunities for young people and youth activities and exchanges. The principles of the service are coded in the European Youth Information Charter.
The first European policy paper focusing on youth information and counselling was Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Recommendation No R(90) 7, from 1990. In the European Youth Information Charter the main principles of youth information are outlined. The first version of the Charter was adopted by the member organisations of ERYICA already 1993. Main elements of these documents were the right for full and comprehensive information and counselling as a basis for active participation in society. It was outlined that the information and counselling provision should be free of charge, and furthermore the mutual support with other forms of youth work was highlighted. Internet and digital media changed and enlarged the needs of information and counselling provision thus leading to the adoption of a revised version of the charter in 2004 as well as to the Principles for Online Youth Information, adopted 2009 by the ERYICA members.
REF: Council of Europe: Recommendation No R (90) 7 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning information and counselling for young people in Europe, 21 February 1990; European Youth Information Charter, adopted in Bratislava (Slovak Republic) on 19 November 2004, by the 15th General Assembly of the European Youth Information and Counselling Agency (ERYICA); and Siurala, L. (2005): European framework of youth policy, Council of Europe Publishing.
See also: Citizenship; participation; young people; youth work
- Youth Involvement in Policy and Decision Making Processes
The recognition of young people as key actors in policy making has been strengthened through the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), which recognizes that participation is a right of all children and young people. It states: “All children have a right to express their views and to have them taken into account in all matters that affect them.”
The right of youth to participate in policy-making processes is also supported by several UN General Assembly Resolutions. At the European level the European Youth Forum gathers more than 93 National Youth Councils and International Non-Governmental Youth Organisations and organises, among other activities, lobby initiatives with the European institutions.
At the Institutional level, the Council of Europe has a specific co-managed system to run its youth sector. Governmental and non-Governmental representatives co-decide upon the priorities of the youth program of the institution and they also co-manage the activities which are run in two youth centres in Strasbourg and Budapest. The Youth Constituency is called the Advisory Council on Youth (AC) and is made up of 30 representatives from youth NGOs and networks that provide opinions and input on all youth sector activities. The AC also ensures that young people are involved in other activities of the Council of Europe.
REF: Council of Europe, The Advisory Council on Youth.
Advisory Council on Youth; Council of Europe; European Youth Forum; Joint Council on Youth; knowledge based youth policy; National Youth Council; participation; young people
- Youth Justice
Youth justice is a term that refers to the organs and processes that are used to prosecute, convict and punish persons under 18 years of age who commit criminal offences in England and Wales. The principal aim of the youth justice system is to prevent offending by children and young persons.
Juvenile delinquency refers to behaviours of children and adolescents that violate the legal code. A juvenile delinquent is a person who is typically under a certain age (this varies across countries) and who commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for persons under 18 to be charged and tried as adults.
In many countries, juvenile offenders are treated in juvenile courts which stand and operate separately from criminal courts, to be able to act in the best interests of a child.
REF: Maahs, J. (2007): Juvenile delinquency. In Ritzer, G. (ed.): The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
See also: young offender
- Youth Leader
A youth leader is an individual having the capacities, skills and competences to organise and coordinate youth groups. A youth leader also has the capacities and abilities to guide the other members of the group towards an action as well as to influence opinions, behaviours and choice for a certain type of action. Most of the times, the youth leader also serves as a role model for the group they lead.
REF: National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition, Youth Development and Youth Leadership.
See also: Competencies; skills
- Youth Mobility Scheme
The Youth Mobility Scheme is for young people who want to live, work and travel in another country for a certain period of time. Young people’s interest in mobility is witnessed by such programmes as Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs and Leonardo Da Vinci. However, some barriers still hinder youth mobility. In order to face these challenges, Youth on the Move and the Youth Opportunities Initiative have been created. Moreover, a European credit system for Vocational Education and Training was introduced and the EURES platform was upgraded, with the aim to support about 100,000 jobseekers per year find a job abroad.
REF: Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 21 November 2008 on youth mobility (2008/C 320/03).
See also: Lifelong learning; mobility; social obstacles; volunteering; Youth on the Move; young people; youth entrepreneurs; youth workers
- Youth Movement
The term youth movement typically refers to self-organised groups of young people acting to respond to societal problems and to bring about transformation and change.
Like social movements in general, youth movements begin spontaneously and do not display fixed organisational structures or formal memberships. They comprise relatively informal socio-political processes that crystallise and express views held by sufficiently large numbers of young people to assure a broad base of support for the movement's activists.
Youth movements inevitably vary in their geopolitical range, specific thematic focus, and scope and methods of action. Today's youth movements are typically decentralised, pluralist and autonomous networks that make much use of IT tools to establish and maintain horizontal and non-hierarchical patterns of communication, decision-making and action.
The dividing line between youth movements and youth organisations is not always evident. On the whole, the more stable and institutionalised the organisational structure, the operational procedures and the funding arrangements, the more likely it is that a grouping will be seen to be a youth organisation rather than a youth movement. Youth movements are inherently ephemeral; the longer they exist, the more they accrete the features of youth organisations – this reflects the process of institutionalisation that accompanies the routinisation of all social innovation.
REF: Wals, A. (ed.) (2007): Social Learning: Towards a Sustainable World, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
See also: Activism; e-participation; young people; youth organisations
- Youth on the Move
“Youth on the Move” is a package of policy initiatives in the fields of education and employment that addresses young people in Europe. Youth on the Move is part of the Europe 2020 strategy. The aim of the package is to invest in youth education and employability, with results being measured by the reduction of youth unemployment. The main actions to be taken are related to making education and training more relevant and framed around young people’s needs; empowering youth to use opportunities provided by the EU to study or train in other countries; and to encourage the Member States to enact measures that facilitate youth transition from education to work.
REF: European Commission, Youth on the Move.
See also: Employment; Europe 2020 Strategy; NEET; youth mobility scheme; youth transition; youth unemployment
- Youth Organisations
Youth organisations are generally understood to be youth-led, non-profit, voluntary, and participatory non-governmental associations. Under some circumstances, youth organisations may form part of the state apparatus.
Youth organisations are mostly established to further the philosophical, political, social, cultural, and/or economic goals of their founders and members. Youth organisations usually design and implement activities, projects, and programmes and/or engage in advocacy work and lobbying to defend and promote their specific cause. Typically, youth organisations focus on promoting and ensuring young people's democratic and social rights; encouraging their social and political participation at all levels in community life; and offering opportunities for personal and social development through leisure activities, voluntary engagement and nonformal and informal learning.
Youth organisations make significant contributions to young people's quality of life, to their knowledge and competence acquisition and – through their participation and engagement – to the community in general. This contribution is now gaining wider recognition, and becoming more visible with innovative forms of documentation and certification of experience and achievement.
Organisational forms range from independent legal entities – including associations, foundations, congregations and unions – to organisations that are part of larger structures, such as youth strands of political parties or sections of broader non-governmental organisations dedicated to youth.
REF: Anamarija Sočo (Ed.) (2011): A short glossary of terms in youth policy and youth work, Croatian Youth Network, Zagreb.
See also: European Youth Forum, Youth Movement, civil society; lobby; political participation; voluntary sector; young people; youth parliament; youth participation
- Youth Parliaments
Youth parliaments are meetings of young people taking on the roles of Members of Parliament. Such model parliaments are usually organised with the political ambition to increase young people's political participation and the educational ambition to raise awareness and increase understanding of political processes.
Furthermore, the role of youth parliaments is often described as encouraging independent thinking and stimulating socio-political initiative.
REF: National Youth Parliament – United Kingdom; International – European Youth Parliament
See also: civil society; participation; participation – models; participation – ladders; political participation; young people; youth participation
- Youth Participation
The 2003 Council of Europe’s “Revised European Charter on the Participation of Young People in Local and Regional Life”, states that “participation in the democratic life of any community is about more than voting or standing for election, although these are important elements. Participation and active citizenship is about having the right, the means, the space and the opportunity and where necessary the support to participate in and influence decisions and engaging in actions and activities so as to contribute to building a better society.”
Furthermore two dimensions of participation can be distinguished:
- Direct participation where political decisions are influenced directly and structural links to political decision-making processes are enabled.
- Indirect forms of participation reach out to citizens and encourage them to support certain issues and positions, also enabling discussions, opinion-building as well as campaigning.
REF: Pleyers, G; Karbach, N. (2014): Analytical paper on Youth Participation-Young people political participation in Europe: What do we mean by participation? Partnership CoE-EU on youth.
See also: Citizen; citizenship; civil society; co-management; e-participation; participation; participation – models; participation – ladders; political participation; young people; youth participation
- Youth Pass
Youth Pass is a European recognition tool for nonformal and informal learning experiences in youth work, available to the participants of the projects granted through Erasmus Plus and Youth in Action programmes. The Youthpass certificate allows the participants to describe their learning experiences and learning achievements, being part of the European Commission’s strategy to foster the recognition of non-formal learning. At the end of the project, the participants reflect upon the personal non formal learning process. The certificate is an essential document that supports active European citizenship of young people and youth workers, and also an excellent tool for the social recognition of youth work.
REF: Youthpass, What is Youthpass?
See also: APEL; citizenship; Erasmus Plus; European Commission; informal learning; nonformal learning; youth work; youth workers
- Youth Policy
The purpose of youth policy is to create conditions for learning, opportunity and experience, which ensure and enable young people to develop the knowledge, skills and competences. This is in order to allow young people to be actors of democracy; integrate into society; and, in particular, enable them to play an active role in both civil society and the labour market. The key measures of youth policies are to promote citizenship learning and the integrated policy approach.
REF: Siurala, L (2005): European framework of youth policy.
See also: Citizenship; civil society; competences; European Youth Strategy; knowledge; skill
- Youth Policy Reviews
Youth policy reviews are an instrument of the Council of Europe's youth sector for youth policy development. This was launched in 1997 as a programme of international reviews of national youth policies. The aims were to:
- improve good governance in the youth field of the country reviewed by promoting dialogue and better cooperation between the government, civil society organisations and research
- identify components of youth policy which might inform an approach to youth policy across Europe
- contribute to a learning process about the development and implementation of youth policy
- contribute to the body of youth policy knowledge and development of the Council of Europe
- make contributions to greater unity in Europe in the youth field and set standards for public policies in the youth field.
REF: Adapted from Siurala, L (2005): European framework of youth policy
The youth policy reviews currently available are accessible online at http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/youth/IG_Coop/youth_policy_reviews_en.aspSee also: Civil society; Council of Europe; European youth policy; research; youth policy
- Youth Political Participation
Political participation in general refers to activities which are voluntarily undertaken by people as citizens, and which deal with government, politics or the state in a broad sense of these words.
Although there is no universal consensus on how to divide forms of participation into broader categories of activities, one can distinguish three broad categories of activism:
- Conventional participation, which occurs within electoral processes and in connection with public sector
- Participation in NGOs and issue movements, in individualised and discursive activism
- Non-institutionalised activism and protests, ranging from legal demonstrations to illegal and violent acts.
These distinctions are analytical and often the forms can overlap (e.g. a protest organised by an NGO).
In recent decades, alienation of young people from conventional participation is seen as a significant challenge. Youth often prefer to become involved through other methods.
For youth in the younger age categories, a range of specific participation environments and activities have been created. These include youth councils, youth associations, shadow elections, school councils, roundtables, etc. These serve the purposes of channelling youth opinions to decision makers as well as to supporting young people to develop into active citizens.
REF: Van Deth, J.W. (2014): A conceptual map of political participation, in: Acta Politica 49, 349–367.
See also: activism; citizens; e-participation; participation; participation – ladder; participation – model; school council; young people; youth councils; youth organisations; youth parliament; youth participation
- Youth Research
Youth research is a specialist area of social scientific inquiry that focuses on all aspects of ‘youth' including the definition of the term. It has always been closely concerned with individual development, life-course analysis, cultural expression and social change. Therefore it is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional field of research rooted in numerous theoretical traditions, epistemological perspectives and methodological approaches. Life-course perspectives demand greater ‘life wide' integration and imply decidedly constructivist approaches to understanding youth as a cultural and social phenomenon.
In practice, youth research parallels other fields of social inquiry: it seeks to secure plausible truths through rigorous inquiry into accessible realities of young people, through methodical questioning of different accounts, and through systematic confrontation between different standpoints on those realities and accounts and their interpretation.
European youth research became a distinct specialist field in the early 1990s, defining itself as an intercultural and transnational coalition committed to supporting an organic (‘magic') triangle between research, policy and practice. Both the Council of Europe and the European Commission have supported the development of the youth research community, not least through the Youth Partnership.
REF: Adapted from Chisholm, L. (2006): Youth research and the youth sector in Europe: perspectives, partnerships and promise, in Milmeister & Williamson (eds.): Dialogues and networks, Esch: Éditions Phi.
See also: Culture; Council of Europe; European Commission; integration; Pool of European Youth Researchers; research methodologies; research methods
- Youth sector
The youth sector refers to the areas in which youth activities are performed, usually specified in the general goals of the national youth strategy or other strategic document in the youth field. Youth sector activity is organised by young people or youth policy actors, undertaken with the aim of improving the position of young people and their empowerment for active participation for their own and for the benefit of the society. The youth sector is comprised of a diverse range of government institutions, non-government organisations, agencies, private practitioners, volunteers, programs, services and other actors that work with young people or have been established to benefit young people.
The international youth sector is a complex web of relationships between governmental, nongovernmental and international institutional actors with programs run for, by, and with young people in support of the active contribution young people can make to their societies and of “good governance” in the sphere of youth policy making. It seeks to promote effective evidence-based action by governments and other relevant actors (e.g., international nongovernmental youth organisations, international institutions, the research community) to address the needs and concerns of young people in terms of human development and civic, political, and social participation.
See also: youth policy, youth policy actors, youth field, Council of Europe’s youth sector
- Youth Trainer
Youth trainers are people who train others to work with young people, using non-formal methods, focusing on personal and social development and with an emphasis on fostering intercultural competence.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Competencies; intercultural; nonformal methods
- Youth Transitions
Youth transitions in a wider sense refer to transition from dependency to independence and living as a full member of society. This involves moving out from parents’ home and establishing one’s own household, cohabiting and raising children, and moving from education system to labour market.
In a narrower sense, youth transitions refer to the transition to the labour market. Supporting young people’s successful transition from school to work has become central to the European policy agenda. In 2012, the European Commission proposed a range of measures – the Youth Employment Package – aimed at combating the “unacceptably high levels” of youth unemployment and social exclusion among young people. Acknowledging that cyclical and structural problems in European labour markets have contributed to making school-to-work transitions more lengthy and difficult, the Commission appealed to Member States to take action to help young people find jobs.
REF: Eurofound (2014): Mapping youth transitions in Europe, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union.
See also: European Commission; NEET; social exclusion; Youth Guarantee; youth unemployment; youth unemployment rate
- Youth Unemployment
Youth unemployment refers to people over the age of 15 who are without work but who are available for either paid employment or self-employment and are actively seeking work.
Pay includes cash payments or 'payment in kind' (payment in goods or services rather than money), whether payment was received in the week the work was done or not.
Exceptions to the standard age of 15 years and more are: 16 years and more in Spain, Sweden (until 2001) and the United Kingdom; 15 to 74 years in Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Finland, Sweden (2001 onwards) and Norway (2006 onwards); 16-74 in Iceland and Norway (until 2005).
Young People are classified as being employed or unemployed irrespective of whether they are in education or not. In other words, students are not excluded from unemployment statistics just because they are students. The same criteria that apply to the rest of the population also apply to them. This means that the fact that someone is in education is irrelevant for his/her status regarding employment or unemployment. However, participation in education of the population as a whole has an indirect effect on youth unemployment indicators.
REF: Adapted from: EU Labour Force Definition, EUROSTAT (2014) EU labour force survey - methodology
See also: NEET; long term unemployment; participation; social exclusion; unemployment; young people; Youth Guarantee; youth unemployment rate
- Youth Unemployment Rate
Youth unemployment rate is the percentage of the unemployed in the age group of 15 to 24 years old compared to the total labour force (both employed and unemployed) in that age group. However, it should be remembered that a large share of people between these ages are outside the labour market (since many youth are studying full time and thus are not available for work). This explains why youth unemployment rates are generally higher than overall unemployment rates, or those of other age groups.
REF: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
See also: NEET; youth unemployment
- Youth Welfare Services
Youth welfare services are provisions designed firstly to guarantee and protect the basic and fundamental rights of young people and secondly, to assure the care and protection of young people deemed to be personally or socially at risk. By extension, youth welfare policies give special priority to bridging social and economic divisions by supporting young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to overcome the obstacles they face. In most countries, approaches of youth welfare services are intended to support and complement – not replace or (unless the rights of young people are violated) contradict – the educational and socialising function of the family and formal schooling.
All European countries have laws at national and/or federal level regulating the provision of welfare services, often providing an outline framework that local and regional authorities turn into specific measures. Child and youth welfare may be dealt with together or through distinct provisions and agencies.
Today, the public sector is the mainstream service provider, but measures may be implemented by a mixture of governmental structures, quasi-governmental organisations and non-governmental associations. On the whole, services are staffed by formally qualified and salaried staff, but voluntary workers continue to make their contribution in NGO contexts.
Approaches of youth welfare services may be informing, supporting, advising, assisting, educating – but also protecting, controlling, intervening, limiting, excluding, and even patronising. Methods commonly cut across a large variety of fields, including but not limited to youth work, social work, social pedagogy, guidance, counselling, monitoring, and psychology.
REF: Williamson, H. (2002): Supporting young people in Europe: principles, policy and practice. The Council of Europe international reviews of national youth policy 1997-2001 – a synthesis report, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing and Williamson, H. (2008): Supporting young people in Europe Volume 2. Lessons from the ‘second seven’ Council of Europe international reviews of national youth policy, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
See also: formal education; poverty; social exclusion; social obstacles; volunteering; young people; youth information and counselling; youth work
- Youth Work
Youth work is a summary expression for activities with and for young people of a social, cultural, educational or political nature. The main objective of youth work is to provide opportunities for young people to shape their own futures.
Increasingly, youth work activities also include sports and services for young people. Youth work belongs to the domain of 'out-of-school' education, most commonly referred to as either non-formal or informal learning. The general aims of youth work are the integration and inclusion of young people in society. It may also aim towards the personal and social emancipation of young people from dependency and exploitation. Youth Work belongs both to the social welfare and to the educational systems. In some countries it is regulated by law and administered by state civil servants, in particular at local level. However, there is an important relation between these professional and voluntary workers, which is at times antagonistic, and at others, cooperative.
The definition of youth work is diverse. While it is recognised, promoted and financed by public authorities in many European countries, it has only a marginal status in others where it remains of an entirely voluntary nature. What is considered in one country to be the work of traditional youth workers – be it professionals or volunteers - may be carried out by consultants in another, or by neighbourhoods and families in yet another country or, indeed, not at all in many places.
Today, the difficulty within state systems to adequately ensure global access to education and the labour market means that youth work increasingly deals with unemployment, educational failure, marginalisation and social exclusion. Increasingly, youth work overlaps with the area of social services previously undertaken by the Welfare State. It, therefore, includes work on aspects such as education, employment, assistance and guidance, housing, mobility, criminal justice and health, as well as the more traditional areas of participation, youth politics, cultural activities, scouting, leisure and sports. Youth work often seeks to reach out to particular groups of young people such as disadvantaged youth in socially deprived neighbourhoods, or immigrant youth including refugees and asylum seekers. Youth work may at times be organised around a particular religious tradition.
REF: Lauritzen P. (2006): Defining youth work. Internal working paper, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
See also: civil society; inclusion; informal learning; integration; nonformal learning; participation; social exclusion; social inclusion; voluntary sector; volunteering; vulnerable young people; young people; youth leadership; youth parliament; youth workers
- Youth Work Convention
The European Youth Work Convention refers to the event that was first initiated and hosted by Belgium in Ghent on 7-10 July 2010 in the framework of the Belgian EU Presidency. This 1st Convention resulted in the Declaration of Ghent and the Resolution of the EU Council of 18-19 November 2010 on youth work, a milestone for the recognition and support of youth work in Europe. Five years later, in 2015, the second European Youth Work Convention was organized, being one of the flagship initiatives of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (November 2014 - May 2015). As important developments occurred both in youth work practice and policy, as the situation was widely contrasted in different countries across Europe (as highlighted in the 'case studies' from the Convention background paper 'Finding commong ground: Mapping and scanning the horizons for European youth work in the 21st century - Towards the 2nd European Youth Work Convention'), it was the high time to give new impetus to youth work policy in Europe. At the end of the Convention, it was produced the Declaration of the 2nd European Youth Work Convention – Making a World of Difference.
See also: European Agenda for Youth Work, Strasbourg Process.
- Youth Work Knowledge
Knowledge refers to the themes and issues one needs to know about the work that is undertaking. The knowledge had been defined as the cognitive dimension of the competence. The Youth Work Knowledge refers to the knowledge that one should have in order to perform the main defined functions of youth work: addressing the needs and aspirations of young people, providing learning opportunities for young people, supporting and empowering young people in making sense of the society they live in and engaging with it, supporting young people in actively and constructively addressing intercultural relation, actively practicing evaluation to improve the quality of the youth work conducted, supporting collective learning in team, contributing to the development of their organization and to making policies / programmes work better for young people, developing, conduct and evaluate projects.
REF: Council of Europe Youth Work Portfolio, www.coe.int/en/web/youth-portfolio/youth-work-competence, last retrieved, 05.01.2017.See also: youth work, youth worker, competences.
- Youth Work Practice
Youth work practice mainly refers to the key elements that define youth work. The key elements that had been used to define the youth work practice had been the following: Focusing on young people, their needs, experiences and contribution; Voluntary participation, young people choose to become involved in the work; Fostering association, relationship and community, encouraging all to join in friendship, to organise and take part in groups and activities and deepen and develop relationships and that allow them to grow and flourish; Being friendly, accessible and responsive while acting with integrity. Youth work has come to be characterised by a belief that workers should not only be approachable and friendly; but also that they should have faith in people; and be trying, themselves, to live good lives; Looking to the education and, more broadly, the welfare of young people.
Ref: Smith, M. K. (2013) ‘What is youth work? Exploring the history, theory and practice of youth work’, the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/mobi/what-is-youth-work-exploring-the-history-theory-and-practice-of-work-with-young-people . Retrieved: 03.01.2016.
See also: youth work, young people.
- Youth Workers
Youth workers are people who work with young people in a wide variety of non-formal and informal contexts, typically focusing on personal and social development through one-to-one relationships and in group-based activities. Being learning facilitators may be their main task, but it is at least as likely that youth workers take a social pedagogic or directly social work based approach. In many cases, these roles and functions are combined with each other.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Informal learning; nonformal learning; young people; youth facilitators; youth leadership; youth work
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
If you wish to suggest other glossaries,
feel free to e-mail us your suggestions : firstname.lastname@example.org