Glossary on youth
Mainstreaming means bringing a certain topic to bear on policy-making, planning and decision-making, at the centre of analyses and policy decisions, medium-term plans, programme budgets, and institutional structures and processes.
The term mainstreaming is very often used in relation to gender (gender mainstreaming), which was defined in 1997 as:
“…the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.”
REF: ECOSOC: Agreed conclusions 1997/2, 18.7.1997 and United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (2002): Gender Mainstreaming. An overview, New York.
See also: Equality; equity; gender
The process whereby people or groups of people are pushed to the margins of a given society due to poverty, disability, lack of education, also by racism or discrimination due to origin, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, etc.
See also: Disability; discrimination; ethnic minorities; NEET; sexual orientation; social cohesion; social exclusion
Within EVS – European Voluntary Service – and Erasmus Plus granted projects, a mentor is an independent person who supports the volunteer during the service, within the hosting community. The support comes mainly in order to help the volunteer to adapt to the new environment as well as to help the volunteer to structure the outcomes of the learning process for the Youthpass certificate, also helping the volunteer to monitor the EVS project in general.
REF: Leargas (n.d.): Hands on guide to… Mentoring in European Voluntary Service Projects.
See also: Certificate; European Voluntary Service; Erasmus Plus; Youthpass; volunteering
Mentoring is a structured process for providing personal guidance and support to someone who is younger, less experienced or new. It is most commonly used in education, training and employment contexts. Mentors act as critical but non-judgemental friends, provide a role model and a source of useful information and advice, and can take on a coaching task (helping to improve performance). They may be freely chosen, but may also be allocated using a set of matching criteria. Formal mentoring programmes are likely to specify a given time-period for the mentoring relationship.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Training
In education and training, methodology is commonly understood to be the educational logic and philosophical rationale underlying a particular pedagogical approach. It can be used as a reference framework that enables an evaluation of whether a specific method is appropriate for given learning aims, contents and contexts. This means that methodologies are coherent sets of principles and relations that frame specific methods and their use. They ‘make sense' of individual methods, and in so doing they provide a meta-orientation for planning training/teaching and learning processes.
REF: Teach - Make a difference, Teaching Methods and Bakker, J.I.H. (2007): Methods. In Ritzer, G. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Social Theory, SAGE Publications, Inc.
See also: Methods; research methods; training; qualitative research, quantitative research
In research, a method is a concrete technique for collecting or analysing information and data in a systematic way – and so ideally producing reliable results. The technique may be designed for dealing with quantitative material (essentially, numbers or abstract symbols), such as questionnaires (data collection) or statistical significance tests (data analysis). It may also be designed for dealing with qualitative material (for example in words, pictures or observational accounts), such as narrative interviews (data collection) or analytic induction (data analysis). Many types of information can be collected and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively, so that different methods can be used to research the same phenomenon – but they might not all be equally useful or appropriate for doing so. Individual research methods are usually ultimately related to differing philosophical approaches to understanding and explaining the social world.
REF: Bakker, J.I.H. (2007): Methods. In Ritzer, G. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Social Theory, SAGE Publications, Inc.
See also: Methodology; qualitative research; quantitative research; research methods
Migration is the movement of persons from one country to another for settlement, as a consequence of (negative) push factors and (positive) pull factors. Due to industrialization processes, migrants moved from agriculture to firms and high wage economies attracted workers from low wage economies. In the EU framework the term ‘migration’ concerns Third country nationals, while movement of EU nationals within the EU is addressed as ‘mobility’. Globalisation has heavily impacted on migration flows. While migration is interpreted as being a voluntary process, ‘forced migration’ (refugees, asylum seekers, etc.) has grown in importance. It can be defined as “the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (those displaced by conflicts) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects” (Forced Migration Online).
REF: Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B. (2006): The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology, Penguin Reference.
See also: Emigration; immigration
A minority group is defined on the basis of being different from a majority group. This may include minorities based on ascribed statuses such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. It may also include groups with deeply held shared identities and practices, including religious or linguistic groups.
For all types of minority groups, it is typically true that the group is different from those who hold the dominant influence in society in some way that is regarded as socially significant, and on the basis of that difference the group is assigned to a subordinate or disadvantaged status.
Early approaches to minorities began from the assumption that such social groups are always smaller in number than those belonging to the mainstream or majority in a given society. By the 1970s, feminist analysis had shown that girls and women, though outnumbering boys and men in most societies of the world, share many of the social features of minority groups – not least in terms of prejudice and discrimination. Most, if not all, contemporary societies are androcentric, that is, values, beliefs, practices and institutional arrangements are predicated on the circumstances of men's lives and on the tenets of masculinity as a set of social and cultural ideologies and practices. This in turn structures social power relations between women and men, generally to the disadvantage of the former, and tends to make such inequalities appear ‘natural'. These insights revolutionised theoretical perspectives on majority-minority relations, so that today, the term ‘minority group' refers to a complex set of features that together signify distinctiveness in relation to that which is perceived as ‘typical' or ‘standard' in a given historical time and social space.
On the whole, members of minority groups are prone to experience disadvantage of various kinds, but the attributes and life circumstances of some minorities instead lead to personal and social privilege – and in this case, such social groups are called ‘elites'.
REF: European Commission, EMN Glossary.
See also: Disability; ethnicity; ethnic minorities; equality; gender; sexual orientation
- Mixed Ability Group
Refers to having both participants with no disabilities as well as participants with disabilities or learning difficulties in the same working group. Having a mixed abilities profile of the group favours the valorisation of different abilities in the group, even if the youth activities might have to be specially adapted. The special adaptation of the work setting and pedagogy ensures the right for everyone to participate in the activities is respected, and that it is a positive experience for all the participants.
REF: Salto Youth Inclusion Research Centre (n.d.): No barriers, No borders, A practical booklet for setting up international mixed-ability youth projects (including persons with and without a disability).
See also: Disability; inclusion; participation; youth participation
Youth mobility in Europe is based on the principle of free movement benefiting every European citizen. It is a central component of the European cooperation on education and training to improve formal, informal or non-formal learning.
Mobility concerns all young Europeans, whether they are schoolchildren, students, apprentices, volunteers, teachers, young researchers, trainers, youth workers, entrepreneurs or young people on the labour market. Mobility is to be understood primarily as physical mobility, which means moving to another country for study, a work placement, community work or additional training in the context of lifelong learning.
Nevertheless, ‘virtual mobility', i.e. the use of information and communications technology (ICTs) to develop partnerships or long-distance exchanges with young people in other countries can also make a significant contribution to mobility.
REF: Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 21 November 2008 on youth mobility (2008/C 320/03).
See also: Lifelong learning; mobility scheme; social obstacles; volunteering; young people; youth entrepreneurs; youth workers
Multicultural refers to the idea that different cultural and ethnic groups can coexist in a pluralist society.
This adjective refers to ‘multiculturalism’, which encompasses various approaches. In a nutshell, it refers to policies developed either by autochthonous ethnic groups or through immigration flows from different areas of the world. It also concerns a variety of policies that promote the institutionalization of cultural diversity.
REF: European Commission, EMN Glossary.
See also: Diversity; immigration
- Multidimensional Citizenship
Multidimensional citizenship focuses on citizenship as a continuous process of civic learning, reflection and action. It centres on the development of citizens' personal civic beliefs, their capacity for joint social and public action, their ties to local communities as well as the world outside, and their awareness of past, present and future. The components of this model include a personal, a social, a spatial and a temporal dimension, all of which are interconnected and interrelated.
The concept of citizenship has become more complex with the increasing incursion of global issues into everyday life and, in consequence, the greater recognition of interconnected and intercultural social worlds. The concept of multidimensional citizenship aims to respond to these new realities.
REF: Adapted from Cogan, John and Derricott, Ray (2000): Citizenship for the 21st Century: An International Perspective on Education, London and Cogan, John et al (2000): Citizenship: The Democratic Imagination in a Global Context.
See also: Citizen; citizenship; European Citizenship
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
If you wish to suggest other glossaries,
feel free to e-mail us your suggestions : email@example.com