Glossary on youth
- Hate Speech
Though most states have adopted legislation banning expressions amounting to “hate speech”, definitions differ slightly when determining what is being banned. Hate speech has no particular definition in international human right. It is a term used to describe broad discourse that is extremely negative and constitutes a threat to social peace. Only the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers Recommendation 97(20) on “hate speech” provides a definition condemning all forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including: intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities, migrants and people of immigrant origin. In this sense, “hate speech” covers comments which are necessarily directed against a person or a particular group of persons.
REF: Weber A., Manual on hate speech (2009), Council of Europe publishing, available at www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/hrpolicy/Publications/Hate_Speech_EN.pdf ;
Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers” Recommendation 97(20) on “hate speech” (1997), available at www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/hrpolicy/other_committees/dh-lgbt_docs/CM_Rec(97)20_en.pdf
See also: No Hate Speech Movement; Freedom of expression; European Convention on Human Rights
- Health Indicators
The Commission Recommendation of 20 February 2013 'Investing in children: breaking the cycle of disadvantage' provides an indicator-based monitoring framework including indicators on children's health. Health indicators include:
- Infant mortality
- Child mortality 1-14 years
- Low birth weight
- Vaccination coverage
- Regular smokers
- Mental health
- Causes of death among young people – suicide.
REF: European Commission, EU Youth Health Indicators and European Commission, Commission Recommendation of 20.02.2013 - C(2013) 778 : Investing in children: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage, Brussels 2013.
See also: Health problems; social inclusion; young people
- Health Problems
Youth health is the range of approaches to preventing, detecting or treating young people’s health and wellbeing. Even though the health of Europe’s young people is considered to be in general rather satisfactory, concerns remain regarding:
- Physical activity
- Alcohol abuse
- Sexual health
- Mental health.
It is essential to promote a healthy lifestyle, to adopt preventive measures and to take gender issues into consideration. To ensure the healthy development of young people, their physical and social environments should be wholesome. This aim is best achieved by giving further support to parents. The extent of social inclusion and level of education of young people is closely related to their health and wellbeing. Hence, it is important that young people are kept well informed of the advantages of a healthy lifestyle and that they are encouraged to become more responsible and autonomous with regard to their own health.
REF: European Union (n.d.): Summaries of EU legislation, Health and well-being of young people, and
World Health Organisation (2014): Fact Sheet N°345: Adolescents: health risks and solutions.
See also: Health indicators; social inclusion; young people
Homophobia is a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). It can be expressed as antipathy, contempt, prejudice, aversion, or hatred, may be based on irrational fear, and is sometimes related to religious beliefs.
REF: International Spectrum, University of Michigan
See also: Bi-sexual, Gay, Homosexual, Lesbian, Queer, Sexual Orientation
‘Homosexual’ is a term that is used to describe a person who has a sexual orientation towards people of their own sex.
The term was coined by the Hungarian doctor Karoly Maria Benkert in 1869 and introduced into English by sexologist Havelock Ellis in the 1890s.
Originally the term ‘homosexual’ was used by scientists and doctors to describe same-sex attraction and behaviour as a sign of mental disorder and moral deficiency. To obtain distance from such medical labels, the terms gay and lesbian are now used. For more information on sexual orientation visit the American Psychological Association.
See also: Bi-sexual; gay; lesbian; queer; sexual orientation
- Human Rights
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions.
The European Convention of Human Rights is the first Council of Europe convention and the cornerstone of all its activities. It was adopted in 1950 and entered into force in 1953. Its ratification is a prerequisite for joining the Organisation.
The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg oversees the implementation of the Convention in the 47 Council of Europe member states. Individuals can bring complaints of human rights violations to the Strasbourg Court once all possibilities of appeal have been exhausted in the member state concerned. The European Union is preparing to sign the European Convention on Human Rights, creating a common European legal space for over 820 million citizens (ECHR).
REF: United Nations Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights; European Convention on Human Rights
See also: Council of Europe; discrimination; European Convention on Human Rights; human rights; human rights education; prejudice
- Human Rights Education
Human Rights Education refers to educational programmes and activities that focus on promoting equality in human dignity, in conjunction with other programmes such as those promoting intercultural learning, participation and empowerment of minorities.
Human rights education includes:
- Promoting awareness and understanding of human rights issues, in order that people recognise violations of human rights (learning about human rights)
- Developing the skills and abilities necessary for the defence of human rights (learning for human rights)
- Developing attitudes of respect for human rights, so that people do not willingly violate the rights of others (learning through human rights)
REF: Council of Europe (n.d.): COMPASS. A manual on human rights education.
See also: Empowerment; European Convention on Human Rights; human rights; intercultural learning; participation
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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