Glossary on youth
This term primarily refers to homosexuality and same sex preferences.
Gay is a term that is used to describe a man who has an emotional and/or sexual orientation towards men. Some women also define themselves as gay rather than lesbian; it is a generic term for lesbian and gay sexuality.
A person should not be referred to as 'a gay', rather that they 'are gay'.
In recent years the term has been coined by some younger people as a derisive term meaning rubbish or stupid (as in "That's so gay."). In this use, the word does not mean "homosexual", rather an object or abstract concept of which one disapproves. In 2014 Stonewall developed a campaign and educational materials to tackle the use of homophobic language used by young people.
For more information on sexual orientation visit the American Psychological Association
See also: Bi-sexual; Gay; homophobia; homosexual; lesbian; queer; sexual orientation
Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. It is often confused with the term ‘sex’; however this term refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women, not to social constructions of roles for men and women. In other words, whilst ‘male’ and ‘female’ are sex categories, ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ are gender categories. These rigid gender expectations are increasingly contested with gender understood as being on a spectrum.
REF: Adapted from World Health Organisation.
See also: Gender Identity
- Gender Based Violence
Gender Based Violence (GBV) is violence that is directed against a person on the basis of his or her gender. It constitutes a breach of the fundamental right to life, liberty, security, dignity, equality between women and men, non-discrimination and physical and mental integrity.
Gender based violence reflects and reinforces inequalities between men and women.
Gender based violence and violence against women (VAW) are often used interchangeably as most gender based violence is inflicted by men on women and girls. The Council of Europe has estimated that 20 to 25% of women in Europe have suffered physical violence. The number of women who have suffered from other forms of gender-based violence is much higher.
The Council of Europe defines violence against women as ‘all acts of gender based violence that result in, or are likely to result in, physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life’.
Although it is difficult to distinguish between different types of violence since they are not mutually exclusive, gender based violence includes:
- domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, sexual violence during conflict and harmful customary or traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, forced marriages and honour crimes
- trafficking in women, forced prostitution and violations of human rights in armed conflict (in particular murder, systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy)
- forced sterilisation, forced abortion, coercive use of contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection
While the EU does not have a common policy to deal with gender based violence, it does have a mandate to take action against one of the most severe forms of gender inequality. In fact, gender based violence cannot be understood outside the social structures, gender norms and roles that support and justify it as normal or tolerable. According to a 2009 Eurobarometer on Gender Equality, 62% of Europeans think that gender based violence should be a priority action in the area of gender inequality, and 92% believe that there is an urgent need to tackle it.
REF: European Institute for Gender Equality, Council of Europe (2006): Combating violence against women: Stocktaking study on the measures and actions taken in Council of Europe member states, Council of Europe, Ad Hoc Committee on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CAHVIO) (2011): European Commission Strategy for equality between women and men, 2010-2015, The Fourth World Conference on Women (1995): Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and European Parliament Resolution on the elimination of violence against women, 26 November, 2009.
See also: Council of Europe; equality; equity; gender
- Gender equality
Gender equality refers to the ideal situation when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society (political participation and representation, participation to the economic life, equal participation in the decision making processes, etc). Ensuring the gender equality had been one of the main priorities both of the international organisations, as well as for the governments and local public authorities, being as well one of the key themes of the discourse and projects of the civil society organisations. In order to have a clear picture of the existent situation when it comes to gender equality, the international organisations developed a series of indexes: United Nations Gender Inequality Index, Social Watch Gender Equity Index, and World Economic Forum Global Gender Pay Gap Index, promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment being as well one of the eight Millennium Development Goals.
REF: Gender Equality in Ireland, What is Gender Equality, United Nations Population Fund, Gender Equality, United Nations Population Fund, Gender Inequality Index (GII), United Nations, Millenium Development Goals and Beyond 2015.
See also: Gender; empowerment; equity; equality; participation; youth political participation
- Gender Identity
The term ‘gender identity’, distinct from the term ‘sexual orientation’ refers to a person's innate, deeply felt psychological identification as a man, woman or some other gender, which may or may not correspond to the sex assigned to them at birth (e.g., the sex listed on their birth certificate).
For transgender people, gender identity may differ from physical anatomy or expected social roles. It is important to note that gender identity, biological sex, and sexual orientation are separate and that you cannot assume how someone identifies in one category based on how they identify in another category.
REF: Human Rights Campaign; International Spectrum University of Michigan, LGBT Terms and Definitions
See also: Gender; sexual orientation; transgender person; trans man/ woman; transgender
- Geographical Obstacles
When defining young people with fewer opportunities, a wide range of obstacles and contexts can be identified. Geographical obstacles refer to the obstacles that young people from remote, rural or hilly areas, young people living on small islands or peripheral regions, young people from urban problem zones, young people from less serviced areas (limited public transport, poor facilities, abandoned villages, etc.), are facing. These obstacles limit young people’s participation.
REF: Salto Youth, Young People with Fewer Opportunities
See also: participation; young people; youth participation
- Global Education
Global education is a holistic education that opens people’s eyes and minds to the realities of the globalised world and awakens them to bring about a world of greater justice, equity and Human Rights for all. The Global Education Programme of the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe promotes global education to strengthen public awareness of sustainable development, bearing in mind that for all citizens is essential to acquire the knowledge and skills to understand, participate in and interact critically with our global society, as empowered global citizens.
The Global Education Week is the Europe-wide annual awareness raising kick-off event to encourage global education practice in formal, non-formal and informal educational settings. The Global Education Week is coordinated with the assistance of the Global Education Week Network and supported by an interactive webpage and a periodic electronic newsletter.
REF: North-South Centre of the Council of Europe: Global Education Guidelines (2012), available at www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/GE/GEguideline_presentation_en.asp ;
The Maastricht Global Education Declaration (2002), available at www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/GE/GE/Maastricht_Global_Education_Declaration_EN.pdf
See also: North-South Centre of the Council of Europe, Learning for Sustainable, development education, human rights education, peace education
- Golden Triangle
“Golden triangle" is a notion which refers to the idea of permanent cooperation and exchanges in the youth field between researchers /research institutions, policy makers/ministries and practitioners/ youth work organisations. Interactions between the three different actors, which all have different organisational frameworks, competences and roles, is expected to contribute to the quality and development of the youth field (youth work, youth policy, living conditions of young people). There are a number of other interaction formats which carry out roughly similar functions (e.g. networks, roundtables, working groups, etc.).
REF: Milmeister, M. and Williamson H. (eds.) (2006): Dialogues and networks: Organising exchanges between youth field actors, Luxembourg: Scientific – Editions PHI.
See also: Young people; youth organisations; youth work
- Guidance Counselling
Guidance counselling is the process of helping individuals discover and develop their educational, vocational, and psychological potentialities and thereby to achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and social usefulness. Guidance in a wide sense is a pervasive activity in which many persons and organisations take part. It is provided to individuals by their parents, relatives, and friends and by the community at large through various educational, industrial, social, religious, and political agencies and through the press and broadcasting services.
REF: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Guidance counseling.
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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