Glossary on youth
- Formal education
UNESCO defines an education programme as a coherent set or sequence of educational activities or communication designed and organised to achieve pre-determined learning objectives or accomplish a specific set of educational tasks over a sustained period. Objectives encompass improving knowledge, skills and competencies within any personal, civic, social and/or employment-related context. Learning objectives are typically linked to the purpose of preparing for more advanced studies and/or for an occupation, trade, or class of occupations or trades but may be related to personal development or leisure. A common characteristic of an education programme is that, upon fulfilment of learning objectives or educational tasks, successful completion is certified. The key concepts in the above formulation are to be understood as follows.
Educational activities are deliberate activities involving some form of communication intended to bring about learning. Learning is individual acquisition or modification of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies or behaviours through experience, practice, study or instruction. That this is organised, means that it is planned in a pattern or sequence with explicit or implicit aims. It involves a providing agency (person(s) or body) that facilitates a learning environment, and a method of instruction through which communication is organised. Instruction typically involves a teacher or trainer who is engaged in communicating and guiding knowledge and skills with a view to bringing about learning. The medium of instruction can also be indirect, e.g. through radio, television, computer software, film, recordings, Internet or other communication technologies. Learning is sustained, meaning that the learning experience has the elements of duration and continuity.
REF: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2012): International Standard Classification of Education 2011, Montreal.
See also: Certification; competencies; knowledge; learning objectives; skill; teacher
- Formal Learning
Formal learning is purposive learning that takes place in a distinct and institutionalised environment specifically designed for teaching/training and learning. It is staffed by learning facilitators who are specifically qualified for the sector, level and subject concerned and who usually serve a specified category of learners (defined by age, level and specialism). Learning aims are almost always externally set, learning progress is usually monitored and assessed, and learning outcomes are usually recognised by certificates or diplomas. Much formal learning provision is compulsory (school education).
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.See also: Accreditation; assessment; certificate; certification; formal education; formal learning; informal learning
- Formal recognition
Formal recognition refers to reaching an ‘official’ status for some aspect of youth work and non-formal learning/education, (e.g. validation of competences; official accreditation of programmes; certification of youth workers and trainers, etc.).
REF: Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the Field of Youth (2011): Pathways 2.0 towards recognition of non-formal learning/education and of youth work in Europe, Strasbourg and Brussels.
See also: Accreditation; certificates; certification; competences; nonformal learning; youth work; youth workers
- Formative Evaluation or Assessment
Formative evaluation or assessment refers to a dynamic process over time, which tries to capture the developmental dimensions of learning, performance and achievement. It records the pathways and the changes between two points in time, with the primary accent on what lies between those points and how the journey has unfolded.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Accreditation; assessment; evaluation; summative evaluation
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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