Glossary on youth
- Decision Making Processes
Decision making refers to the process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. The EU’s standard decision making procedure is known as Ordinary Legislative Procedure (codecision). This means that the directly elected European Parliament has to approve EU legislation together with the Council of Europe(the governments of the 28 EU countries). The Commission drafts and implements EU legislation.
REF: European Union, How EU decisions are made.
See also: Council of Europe; European Commission
- Demographic changes
Considered a global issue and extremely challenging for the European Union, the demographic changes refers to ageing population, low birth rates, redefining the family structures and to the challenges generated by the migration phenomenon. To respond to the stated challenges, the European Commission came up with in 2006 with a communication on the demographic future of Europe – from challenge to opportunity, identifying five key policy responses: supporting demographic renewal through better conditions for families and improved reconciliation of working and family life, boosting employment – more jobs and longer working lives of better quality, raising productivity and economic performance through investing in education and research, receiving and integrating migrants into Europe, ensuring sustainable public finances to guarantee adequate pensions, health care and long-term care.
REF: European Commission: Commission Communication COM (2006) 571 final - 12.10.2006: The demographic future of Europe – from challenge to opportunity.
See also: European Commission; migrant
Disability is the consequence of impairment and might be physical, mental, sensory, developmental, and cognitive. It might also be a combination of these forms of impairment, affecting the functional performance and activity by the individual. The presence of disability (either from birth or occurring later on in one’s development stages) might lead to the reduced participation of the individuals the social, cultural or economic life.
REF: Salto Youth Inclusion Resource Centre (n.d.): No barriers, No borders, A practical booklet for setting up international mixed-ability youth projects (including persons with and without a disability)
See also: Educational difficulties; discrimination; participation; prejudice; vulnerable young people
Discrimination means treating a person or particular group of people differently. In a negative sense, discrimination is an action, expression or behaviour that denies social participation or human rights to categories of people based on prejudice or on a certain characteristic. This includes treatment of an individual or group in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated, based on their actual or perceived membership of a certain group or social category. Discrimination may take place on various grounds: age, disability, employment, language, nationality, racial or ethnic, regional or religious background, sex, gender, and gender-identity, sexual orientation.
Reverse or positive discrimination is the policy of favouring members of a disadvantaged group. Examples of positive discrimination include quotas and giving certain groups preference in (job) selection processes. The nature of positive discrimination policies varies across countries.
REF: Law, I. (2007): Discrimination, in Ritzer, G. (ed.): The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
See also: Disability; ethnic minorities; gay; gender; gender identity; homophobia; homosexual; identity; LGBTQI; lesbian; prejudice; sexual orientation; transgender; trans man/ woman
- Discursive Participation
Discursive participation refers to the diverse ways in which individuals discuss policy issues affecting the local, national, and international communities in which they live. Discursive participation features deliberative communication behaviours that allow citizens to formulate and revise their preferences, i.e. learn what they should want from policymakers. Discursive participation can include but is not limited to the formal institutions and processes of civic and political life. It can involve private individuals in informal, unplanned exchanges; those who convene for public purposes but do so outside the normal processes of government operations (e.g. in libraries, schools, homes, churches, and community centres); and those who are brought together in settings such as town hall meetings of political representatives and their constituents. Discursive participation can occur through a variety of media, including face-to-face exchanges, phone conversations, email exchanges, and internet forums.
REF: Sharp, E.B. (2012): Citizen participation at the local level, in H.L.Schachter (ed.): The state of citizen participation in America, Information Age Publishing, Inc.,
Charlotte and Delli Carpini, M. X., Cook, F. L., & Jacobs, L. R. (2004): Public Deliberations, Discursive Participation and Citizen Engagement: A Review of the Empirical Literature, in: Annual Review of Political Science, 7 (1), 315-344.
See also: e-participation; participation; political participation; youth participation; co-production
In general, the term ‘diversity’ is simply another way of denoting ‘multiple difference' or ‘variety'. However, it has come to acquire a socio-political connotation that specifies positive acceptance of heterogeneity, and in particular, of cultural heterogeneity. Most commonly, diversity implicates that such differences are to be accepted and respected equally, since no culture is intrinsically superior or inferior to another.
Within this framework, noticeable and identifiable differences between people, such as race, ethnicity, language, culture, religion, age, gender, socioeconomic status, family status, sexual orientation, political views, disability status, etc. are considered to offer positive potential – diversity connotes the power of variety, which both exists and is to be valued and cultivated.
At the European level, the notion of diversity is, on the one hand, one of the pillars of the EU for achieving the Union's strategic goals and for building a more inclusive community, and, on the other hand, central to the ideas of pluralism and multiculturalism underpinning the Council of Europe's strategy on education for democratic citizenship.
REF: Stevens, G., Downs, H. (2007): Diversity. In Ritzer, G. (ed.): The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
See also: Citizenship; community cohesion; Council of Europe; culture; cultural diversity; disability; ethnic minority; gender; integration; multi-cultural; sexual orientation
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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