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Country: Croatia

Organisation responsible: Agency for Electronic Media
Croatian Olympic Committee
Office for Gender Equality of the Government of the Republic of Croatia

Main topic addressed: Gender equality in media

Type of resource/practice: Awareness-raising initiative

Discipline: Multi-sport

Target group(s): Women in sport organisations, leaders/decision-makers in sport organisations, all stakeholders in the field of sport, media

Timing: 2-16 May 2018

Language: Croatian

Brief description of the practice: Two video clips and two radio jingles were created. They were broadcast on a wide number of television and radio stations in Croatia. 100 radio stations and 23 TV channels broadcast the video clips for free, which was for the first time in the history of sport in Croatia that such a significant media coverage was devoted to women’s sports. A number of specialised TV and radio shows were created in the period between March and June 2018. Ambassadors of the campaign were male and female athletes who were invited as guests on different TV and radio shows to speak about this topic.

Content and objectives: The main objective of the project was to improve the visibility of women’s sports in media by implementing a two-week long media campaign. In 2017, the Network of Mediterranean Regulatory Authorities (MNRA) published a study entitled „Equality between men and women in the sport programmes through audio-visual media services.” Seven national media authorities participated in the study (Croatia – AEM, Spain -CNMC, Andalusia - CAA, Catalonia - CAC, Morocco - HACA, Portugal - ERC, Serbia - REM, France – CSA (click link above to download the report in English). The study was conducted within the framework of different initiatives and studies driven by the Working Group on Gender and Media of the MNRA.
One of the main goals of both the MNRA and the Working Group on Gender and Media was to stress the existence of gender stereotypes and promote equality between men and women in the audio-visual media services. The study focused on two main areas:

(1) Concerning the presence of female sport on the news:

  • What is the magnitude of female sport when broadcasting a sport event?
  • What is the impact of female sport in the sport news?
  • What are the most broadcast sports in relation to gender?
  • Which are the most relevant sports on the news in relation to gender?

(2) With regard to the speaking time and the role that women have on the news:

  • Who are the representatives of women that appear on the news?
  • What is the role that women usually have when they intervene actively on sport news?

The scope of the study were the three free-to-air TV channels with the largest TV audience ratings. The seven authorities have analysed the total of 18 channels and almost 200 hours of programming. That was, without a doubt, a relevant sample that can provide objective indicators about the presence of women in the sport environment in the Mediterranean area.
According to the data collected on the number of broadcast sport events, the share of women's sport events was 16%, and the share of men's sport events was 84%. Hence, there was a high contrast in the number of broadcast sport events between the two genders. According to the data collected on presence of women in sport news, the presence of women's sport was minimal. Women's sports did not exceed 11% of the sports news that were broadcast. Needless to say, there is a clear preponderance of male sports in this area, which reaches 82%. In relation with the distribution of speaking time on sport news by gender, the study results indicated a low presence of women on sport news. As for the rest of fields, the presence of women as an active subject in sport information was about 10%.
The MNRA proposed that the authorities for electronic media, under their own scope of competence, should propose the signature of an “Agreement about sport” with media, journalists, institutions and relevant agents in the field of sport, in order to improve equality and pluralism.
Based on that recommendation, the Agency for electronic Media in Croatia signed the co-operation agreement with the Croatian Olympic Committee, and the Office for Gender Equality of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. Together, they implemented the project with the aim to increase the visibility of women's sports in media.

Steps/activities of the practice: 

  • Co-operation agreement signed between the key stakeholders,
  • E-materials created,
  • Ambassadors identified and recruited,
  • Distributed the e-materials to radio and TV stations,
  • Co-ordination between the e-media and ambassadors participating in the shows,
  • Participating in different events to raise the visibility of the campaign during and after the campaign.

Resources required: The budget was approximately 40,000 euros (provided by the Agency for Electronic Media). It included the creation of TV and radio awareness-raising ads (two video and two audio clips, each lasting 30 seconds) as well as the project's PR campaign (approx. 10,000 euros).

Achievements and outcomes: The campaign raised the visibility of female athletes and women’s sports in e-media. We don't have feedback regarding the campaign reach-out or public reactions and comments, nevertheless, the interest from the media was respectable. 
We don't have feedback in the form of statistical data regarding campaign reach or public reactions and comments; nevertheless, the interest from the media was respectable. We were given an opportunity to present our project on 16 TV and radio shows. This topic and our project were also very well covered by print media.
The campaign was divided into two sections. The first part of the campaign was held during May 2018 and the second one during November 2018. Video and audio ads were broadcast by three national and 23 local television broadcasters as well as more than 100 radio broadcasters.

Challenges and limitations: N/A

Follow-up ideas and future plans: In March 2019, the Agency for Electronic media published the recommendations for electronic media providers as well as for sport association representatives on improving their co-operation and making efforts and hard work of athletes more visible in electronic media.
The control study of audiovisual media services treatment of sports events depending on the gender of their participants is planned for 2020.
The results of this study will be the best indicator for evaluating the success of this campaign.
We plan to organise training for women in sport to strengthen their competencies related to participation in the public media and events.

Further information:
The MNRA study can be downloaded from here in English:

Contact person: Alma Papić,

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