Glossary on youth
Qualification is a synonym for a certificate or diploma. In the world of formal education and training in Europe it is usually an official record or document testifying to the fact that a person has successfully completed a given course or reached a given standard of achievement for a specified field, skill or competence.
REF: Chisholm, L (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Accreditation; certificate; certification; competence; formal education; skill; training
- Qualitative Research
There is no universally accepted definition of qualitative research, although it is accepted that data collected during qualitative research activities is not usually numerical. Qualitative approaches to research are based on a “world view” which is holistic and has the following basis:
- There is not a single reality.
- Reality is based upon perceptions that are different for each person and change over time.
- What we know has meaning only within a given situation or context.
A range of terms is employed to indicate that the approach to research being used is qualitative; these include holistic, naturalistic, ethnographic, constructivist and interpretive. One significant difference between qualitative and quantitative research approaches is that no intervention, or control group is used in qualitative research.
The key features of qualitative research are that:
- It is not based upon numerical measurements and does not use numbers and statistical methods as key research indicators and tools. Instead, it uses words as the unit of analysis and often takes an in-depth, holistic or rounded approach to events/issues/case studies.
- It tends to be associated with description.
- It tends to be associated with small-scale studies and a holistic perspective, often studying a single occurrence or small number of occurrences/case studies in great depth.
- It does not investigate causal hypotheses, instead developing and testing theories as part of an on-going process.
- It tends to be associated with researcher involvement, with the researcher acting as a measurement tool.
- It tends to be associated with emergent research design, using a wide range of approaches and analysing in a fashion that is sometimes impossible to replicate; however, this does not invalidate the research.
- A common perception of qualitative research is that the emphasis is on discovery rather than proof.
- Examples of qualitative research methods are:
- action research
- case study
- grounded theory
- historical methods
REF: University of Southampton, e-Research Methods
See also: Methodology; quantitative research; research methodologies
- Quantitative Research
Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomenon. Quantitative research reflects the philosophy that everything can be described according to some type of numerical system for example:
- The height of a person (in metres)
- The age of a person (in years and months)
- The gender of a person (using a numerical system of categorisation, e.g. 1 for female, 2 for male)
- A person’s education (e.g. number and grade of school certificates; classification of undergraduate degree)
- A person’s political views (e.g. using a scale that goes from 0 for extreme left-wing to 10 for extreme right-wing)
The key features of quantitative research are:
- It is usually based upon numerical measurements and thus tends to use numbers and statistical methods as key research indicators and tools
- It tends to be associated with analysis
- It tends to be associated with large-scale studies and with a specific focus, often condensing information from a large number of specific occurrences to search for a general description or to investigate causal hypotheses
- It tends to be associated with researcher detachment, producing 'objective' numerical data that is independent of the researcher; it is a very controlled, exact approach to research
- It tends to be associated with pre-determined research design, using measurements and analyses in a systematic and logically ordered fashion that may be replicated relatively easily by other researchers.
- Validity and reliability can be measured numerically using statistical tests
- A common perception of quantitative research is that the emphasis is on proof rather than discovery
- There are three primary types of quantitative research designs:
- descriptive and correlational
REF: University of Southampton, e-Research Methods
See also: Methodology; qualitative research; research methodologies
This is an umbrella term sometimes used by Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender, Queer and Intersex (LGBTQI) people to refer to the entire LGBT community. It is also an alternative label used by people who do not wish to identify with particular labels and categories such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, etc.; or who do not feel that they fit within societal norms.
It is important to note that the word queer is an in-group term, and a word that can be considered offensive to some people, depending on their generation, geographic location, and relationship with the word.
REF: International Spectrum, University of Michigan
See also: Bi-sexual; gay; homophobia; homosexual; lesbian; transgender; queer; sexual orientation
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
If you wish to suggest other glossaries,
feel free to e-mail us your suggestions : firstname.lastname@example.org