Glossary on youth
The term participation means that someone can be part, has or gives a part of something. Thus participation in social life implies that someone is able to use existing opportunities and has access to existing offers including information, education, labour market and social rights. In political terms participation means that someone can make his/her voice heard and can get involved in existing decision making processes.
Therefore participation means the active involvement in shaping the diverse environments one lives in and according to the needs and interests.
Participation is an essential element of citizenship in a democratic society and a democratic Europe. Meanwhile, participation is not an aim in itself, but an approach to becoming active citizens.
REF: Salto Youth Net (n.d.): Amplify youth participation. Recommendations for policy and practice, Brussels, Huang, Lihong (n.d): EU-CoE partnership policy sheet. Citizenship and Participation; EU-CoE Youth Partnership, Reflection Group on Youth Participation.
See also: citizen; citizenship; e-participation; participation – models; participation – ladder; political participation; youth participation
- Participation - Ladder
The degree of involvement in decision-making can vary significantly. In 1969, Sherry Arnstein described citizen’s participation as being a ladder of eight steps. At the bottom of the ladder was ‘manipulation’, and ‘therapy’ (which she considered to be non-participation); these rungs were followed by the rungs of ‘informing’, ‘consultation’ and ‘plaction’ (which Arnstein called ‘degrees of tokenism’); whilst the rungs leading to the top of the ladder were ‘partnership’, ‘delegated power’ and ‘citizen participation’ (which Arnstein called ‘degrees of citizen power’). Arnstein, argued that only ‘partnership’, ‘delegated power’ and ‘citizen control’ can be regarded as real participation.
Roger Hart focused on children’s participation and described eight rungs on the ladder from tokenism to citizenship. He summarised manipulation, decoration and tokenism as forms of non-participation because it does not allow children to bring in their own ideas and wishes. The fourth rung, the first step of real participation is described as assigned but informed. This is followed by consulted and informed. The sixth rung of the ladder is adult-initiated projects, where shared decisions are taken. The next levels, the highest form of children’s participation, are child-initiated and directed. Here children and young people initiate and share decisions with adults.
REF: Arnstein, S. (1969): A Ladder of Citizen Participation, in: Journal of the American Institute of Planners, Vol 35, Issue 4, p. 216-224; Hart, R. (1992): Children’s participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship, UNICEF, Italy.
See also: Citizen; citizenship; co-production; participation – models; political participation; youth participation; young people
- Participation – Models
Models of youth participation in projects and policy making often refer to the different levels of involvement and thus to the ladder models by Hart or by Arnstein. Another popular model is Shier’s Pathways to Participation where five levels of participation are discussed. An extensive collection of models of participation was undertaken by Andreas Karsten.
REF: Karsten, A. (n.d.): Nonformality.
See also: Citizen; citizenship; co-production; participation; political participation; youth participation; young people
- Peer to peer education
Peer to peer education is a method of informing, teaching and learning among equals whereby young people educate other young people. This is based on the view that often young people can more profitably discuss and explore issues with young people of their own background than with adults such as youth workers, teachers, experts, parents. The approach is widely used in peer tutoring at schools, substance use prevention, promotion of healthy life styles and HIV/AIDS prevention (http://www.europeer.lu.se/).
Peer to peer education also refers to a planned intervention of young people for young people reaching from peer information to peer counselling and to peer group education. The method has great overall potential, but must be adapted to local needs and requirements, catering to the specific characteristics of young people in each individual country. The approach is commonly used in various settings from information on European Union projects (e.g. Europeers) to information on education and job opportunities and in prevention work (e.g. risk’n’fun) and health provision (e.g. the UNFPA regional project Y-Peer).
REF: Bundesministerium für Familien und Jugend (2003): Vierter Bericht zur Lage der Jugend in Österreich, United Nations Population Fund, Peer Education Toolkit.
See also: Education methodology; mentoring; methods; training; young people
- Political Participation
Political participation is any activity that shapes, affects, or involves the political sphere. Recent understanding is that political participation cannot be narrowed to the conventional forms of participation in elections or referendums, or being members of political parties. Unconventional forms like signing petitions, organising demonstrations or strikes have, for some time, been considered legal forms of political participation, as are supporting boycotts or express political opinions via badges, T-shirts, stickers or letters to media and online postings.
Beside these legal forms of political participation some activities carried out with the intention of influencing society and/or the political sphere are considered illegal. These could involve actions such as vandalism or acts of terrorism, as well as civil disobedience or resistance.
See also: Activism; e-participation; participation; participation - ladder; political participation; youth participation
- Political recognition
Political recognition refers to the development of relevant policies (strategies, laws, etc.) around youth work and non-formal learning/education. It is also about putting youth work on the political agenda of the key institutions in your context.
See also: nonformal education; nonformal learning; youth work
- Pool of European Youth Researchers (PEYR)
The Pool of European Youth Researchers (PEYR) was set up by the partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the field of youth to foster evidence based policy-making in the field of youth. It brings together 25 researchers and experts from across Europe who possess a wide range of expertise in different policy areas connected to youth. The first edition of the PEYR ran until Autumn 2013. Following a new call, the second edition of PEYR was launched. The new PEYR mixed some old members and new ones in order to ensure the continuity the work undertaken by the group, while at the same time including new and fresh insights.
In addition to providing expertise on demand, PEYR members meet once a year to discuss broader issues connected to youth research and provide input to policy initiatives of the two partner institutions.
REF: Council of Europe European Union Youth Partnership, Pool of European Youth Researchers.
See also: Council of Europe; evidence-based youth policies; youth research
In 1995 the United Nations adopted two definitions of poverty.
Absolute poverty was defined as a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services.
Overall poverty takes various forms, including lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterised by lack of participation in decision making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries, loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets.
These are relative definitions of poverty, which see poverty in terms of minimum acceptable standards of living within the society in which a particular person lives.
REF: Poverty and social exclusion research project
See also: discrimination; exclusion; long term unemployment; participation; social class; social exclusion
Prejudice is the pre-judging or forming of opinion (which is usually negative) before having the relevant facts to make a judgement. Features include negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs and a tendency to discriminate (putting these judgments into practice).
Prejudice can involve forming an opinion based upon a variety of different factors. This includes, for example, anti-religious prejudice, classism, homophobia, racism and sexism.
See also: Discrimination; homophobia
- Programming Committee
The Programming Committee is a subsidiary co-decision body made up of eight members each from the CDEJ and the Advisory Council. It establishes, monitors and evaluates the programmes of the European Youth Centres and of the European Youth Foundation.
REF: Council of Europe, Co-Management.
See also: Advisory Council on Youth; CDEJ; European Youth Policy
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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