Glossary on youth
- National Agency
National agencies are structures established by the national authorities in each program country in order to assist the European Commission with management and to assume responsibility for implementation of most of the Erasmus + and Youth in Action Programme. They promote and implement the program at national level and act as the link between the European Commission, promoters at national, regional and local level, and young people. The implementation of the program is mainly decentralised, the aim being to work as closely as possible with the beneficiaries and to adapt to the diversity of national systems and situations in the youth field.
It is the role of national agencies to:
- collect and provide appropriate information on the program
- administer a transparent and equitable selection process for project applications to be funded at decentralised level
- provide effective and efficient administrative processes
- seek cooperation with external bodies in order to help to implement the program
- evaluate and monitor the implementation of the program
- provide support to project applicants and promoters throughout the project life cycle
- form a functioning network with all National Agencies and the Commission
- improve the visibility of the program
- promote the dissemination and exploit the results at national level.
In addition, they play an important role as an intermediate structure for the development of youth work by:
- creating opportunities to share experiences
- providing training and nonformal learning experiences
- promoting values like social inclusion, cultural diversity and active citizenship
- supporting all kinds of youth structures and groups, especially less formal ones
- fostering recognition of nonformal learning through appropriate measures.
Finally, they act as a supporting structure for the Framework for European cooperation in the youth field.
REF: European Commission, Directorate-General Education and Culture, Youth in Action Programme Guide, 2012.
See also: Citizenship; cultural diversity; Erasmus Plus; European Commission; nonformal learning; recognition of nonformal learning; social inclusion; young people; Youth in Action; youth work
- National Youth Council
A National Youth Council is an umbrella organisation for youth NGOs and sometimes also other actors in youth work. National youth councils exist in most countries and almost all national youth councils in Europe receive financial support from their governments for maintaining their role as young people’s voice at the national level.
Youth Councils function primarily as a service organisation to their members. However, they can also act as a lobby and advocacy body. They play a privileged role as a government partner in the development of policies and programmes affecting youth and consequently, should be involved in development, implementation and evaluation of policy initiatives in the youth field.
At an international level, the European Youth Forum is the platform of the national youth councils and international non-governmental youth organisations in Europe. It strives for youth rights in international institutions such as the European Union, the Council of Europe and the United Nations.
REF: Denstad, F.Y. (2009): Youth Policy Manual. How to develop a national youth strategy, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing and Siurala, L. (2005): European framework of youth policy, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing.
See also: Council of Europe; European youth policy; evaluation; lobby; national youth policy review; youth organisations; youth work
- National Youth Policy
In Europe, youth policy is regarded as an integrated or cross-sectoral policy area. This means that formal and legal responsibility is consensual and plans, actions and programmes are integrated and discussed across sectors. However, in reality, three main problems in the development of a European wide cross-sectoral youth policy have been identified:
- cross-sectoral youth policy does not go beyond rhetorical exercises, mere intentions or the use of youth framed, vocabulary. This includes a lack of legal framework; intentions with no action; principles with no specific programmes; and unclear relationships between departments, ministries or agencies
- there is a lack of functionality and efficiency of existing structures. This includes lack of communication, collaboration or coordination between departments, ministries or agencies; or the overlapping of responsibilities and disregard for what is being done outside or beyond the Ministry of Youth or equivalents at a country wide level
- there are problems associated with the structure itself for example, at a country level youth ministries (or its equivalents) are situated at the bottom of the Governmental hierarchy, or alternatively, are not even part of that hierarchy.
REF: Nico, M. (2014): Life is cross-sectoral. Why shouldn’t youth policy be? Overview of existing information on cross-sectoral youth policy in Europe, Strasbourg, Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the field of youth.
See also: European youth policy; national policy review
- National Youth Policy Review
The Youth Department of the Council of Europe is running a project for the evaluation of national youth policies in member States. On the basis of an extensive national evaluation report and study visits in the countries concerned, an expert team drafts an international evaluation report which is presented to the Steering Committee for Intergovernmental Co-operation in the Youth Field (CDEJ) and the Minister responsible for youth issues at a public hearing. In autumn 2014, 19 international evaluation reports and two synthesis reports were available.
The first review was carried out in 1997 and the report was produced in 1999 (Finland). Since then, reporting methodology and composition of expert groups have been in development.
REF: Council of Europe, Youth - Young People Building Europe.
See also: Council of Europe; European youth policy; national youth policy
The term NEET is an acronym for Not in Education, Employment or Training. It is used to describe young people who are not engaged in any form of employment, education or training. The term has come into the policy debate in recent years due to disproportionate impact of the recession on young people (under 30 years old). The unemployment rate for those under thirty is nearly double the average rate.
Those with low levels of education are three times more likely to be NEET than those with third-level education. The risk is 70% higher for young people from an immigration background than nationals, while having a disability or health issue is also a strong risk factor.
Some 14 million young people are not in employment, education or training across the EU as a whole. However rates vary widely from around 5.5% of 15-24 year olds in the Netherlands to 22.7% in Italy.
The economic cost is not the only one. Young people not in employment, education or training are at higher risk of being socially and politically alienated. They have a lower level of level of interest and engagement in politics and lower levels of trust. Even in those countries where NEETs are more politically engaged (such as Spain) they do not identify with the main political or social actors.
EU Member States have tried a number of measures to prevent young people from becoming NEET and to reintegrate those who are NEETs. The involvement of a range of stakeholders in the design and delivery of youth employment measures is essential. In particular, a strong level of engagement with employers and their representatives is needed for measures that focus on fostering their beneficiaries’ employability.
Source: Eurofound, Young people and ‘NEETs’.
See also: Educational difficulties; employment; exclusion; long term unemployment; social exclusion; social obstacles; training; unemployed; vulnerable young people; young people; young people with fewer opportunities; Youth Guarantee
- Non-organised youth
Non-organised or unorganised youth is the term used in prevailing youth work research and policy to refer to young people who do not engage in youth work activities. In these contexts, they are often associated with the concept of ‘marginalized group’. This is because is youth work practice many initiatives are created to organise the unorganised young people, increasing the participation of young people in youth work. This practice contributes in marginalising these young people by labelling them “irregular”, separating them from their social context and reinforcing social dividing lines.
Extensive research projects had been conducted on analysing the youth development within an organised youth participation settings (such as youth clubs, sports clubs, youth centres, youth organisations, etc), however less attention has been invested in non-organised youth. Compared to organised settings, non-organised youth movements/groups involve less adult supervision, might have an irregular participation agenda, less crystallised goals and objectives or rules for behaviour. Even if developed, conducted and evaluated in non-standard settings, the non-organised youth groups develop and conduct activities that are both challenging and attractive to young people.
REF: DesRoches, A. and Willoughby, T. (2014): Bidirectional Associations Between Valued Activities
and Adolescent Positive Adjustment in a Longitudinal Study: Positive Mood as a Mediator, in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 208-220; Verschelden, G., Coussée, F., Van de Walle, T., and Williamson, H. (2009) The History of Youth Work in Europe: Relevance for youth policy today, Council of Europe Publishing, 2009.
See also: marginalisation; social exclusion; youth leader; youth organisation; youth participation; youth work
- Nonformal Education
Nonformal education is any educational action that takes place outside of the formal education system. Non-formal education is an integral part of a lifelong learning concept that ensures that young people and adults acquire and maintain the skills, abilities and dispositions needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment. It can be acquired on the personal initiative of each individual through different learning activities taking place outside the formal educational system. An important part of non-formal education is carried out by non-governmental organisations involved in community and youth work.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has passed a resolution and a recommendation on “Young Europeans: an urgent educational challenge” promoting enhancement of traditional forms of education settings, recognition and support of non-formal and informal learning settings.
REF: Parliamentary Assembly (1999): Report of the Committee on Culture and Education, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, document 8595: Non-formal education; Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1930 and Recommendation 2014 (2013): Young Europeans: an urgent educational challenge.
See also: Council of Europe; formal education; formal learning; informal learning; nonformal learning; skill; youth work
- Nonformal Learning
Non-formal learning is a purposive, but voluntary, learning that takes place in a diverse range of environments and situations for which teaching/training and learning is not necessarily their sole or main activity. These environments and situations may be intermittent or transitory, and the activities or courses that take place may be staffed by professional learning facilitators (such as youth trainers) or by volunteers (such as youth leaders). The activities and courses are planned, but are seldom structured by conventional rhythms or curriculum subjects.
Non-formal learning and education, understood as learning outside institutional contexts (out-of-school) is the key activity, but also the key competence, of youth work. Non-formal learning/education in youth work is often structured, based on learning objectives, learning time and specific learning support and it is intentional. It typically does not lead to certification, but in an increasing number of cases, certificates are delivered, leading to a better recognition of the individual learning outcome.
Non-formal education and learning in the youth field is more than a sub-category of education and training since it is contributing to the preparation of young people for the knowledge-based and the civil society.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvainand Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the Field of Youth (2011): Pathways 2.0 towards recognition of non-formal learning/education and of youth work in Europe, Strasbourg.
See also: Civil society; formal education; formal learning; informal learning; learning objectives; nonformal education; training; youth facilitator
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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