Glossary on youth
- Key competences
Key competences are a combination of basic knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context, to be provided through lifelong learning as a key measure in Europe's response to globalisation and the shift to knowledge-based economies. Moreover, they are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment.
Key competences in the shape of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to each context are fundamental for each individual in a knowledge-based society. They provide added value for the labour market, social cohesion and active citizenship by offering flexibility and adaptability, satisfaction and motivation. The EU recommends that they should be acquired by everyone, this recommendation proposes a reference tool for European Union (EU) countries to ensure that these key competences are fully integrated into their strategies and infrastructures, particularly in the context of lifelong learning.
Key competences should be acquired by:
- Young people at the end of their compulsory education and training, equipping them for adult life, particularly for working life, whilst forming a basis for further learning;
- Adults throughout their lives, through a process of developing and updating skills.
The acquisition of key competences fits in with the principles of equality and access for all. This reference framework also applies in particular to disadvantaged groups whose educational potential requires support. Examples of such groups include people with low basic skills, early school leavers, the long-term unemployed, people with disabilities, migrants, etc.
REF: Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning (2006/962/EC); Europa - Summaries of EU legislation, Key competences for lifelong learning.
See also: Citizenship; competencies; disabilities; early school leaving; knowledge; lifelong learning; migrants; skills; social cohesion
It is impossible to provide a satisfactory account of the conceptual background behind the term knowledge in a few words. In the everyday world, the meaning of the term knowledge appears self-evident: it is what someone individually knows or the sum of what a given civilisation collectively knows.
In educational practice knowledge is what there is to learn, but it is not necessarily useful and worthwhile of its own accord. It has to be joined up with skills and competences (to become useful), and with principles and values (to become worthwhile).
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Competences; skills
- Knowledge Based Youth Policy
A greater understanding and knowledge of youth is of paramount importance for policy making in the youth field. In order to meet the needs and expectations of young people, policies should be based on comprehensive knowledge and well-researched understanding of young people's situation, needs and expectations.
A knowledge-based approach to policy development is particularly imperative in the context of rapidly evolving realities and permanently fluctuating circumstances of younger generations in Europe. Youth research plays a vital role in generating knowledge and understanding in aid of youth policy development, as the Youth partnership document "knowledge based policy" claims. Thus youth research and the exchange between researchers and policy makers are essential to a knowledge based policy approach.
However, knowledge based youth policy includes more than results gained by the scientific community; it also refers to experiences of those working with and for young people. Knowledge includes data, facts and figures, evidence and experience from various sources both from the scientific community and the civil society as well as the policy makers.
REF: Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the field of Youth (n.d.): Knowledge based policy. Better understanding of youth policy framework.
See also: civil society; evidence based youth policies; knowledge; young people; youth involvement in policy and decision making processes; youth policy; youth research
- Knowledge-based youth work
Knowledge-based youth work refers to experiences of those working with and for young people, as well as accumulation of data, facts and figures, evidence and experience from various sources both from youth work practitioners, scientific community, civil society as well as the policy makers.
Declaration of the 2nd European Youth Work Convention emphasises the importance of building a knowledge base for youth work in Europe. Certainly, youth work needs more national and European research – exploiting different methodologies - about the different forms of youth work, its values, impacts and merits. There is an identified need for support for appropriate forms of scrutiny, inquiry and assessment of youth work practice and concepts in Europe. Based on the evidence of monitoring and research, youth work has a need for mechanisms for the development of reflective practice in Europe.
REF: Declaration of the 2nd European Youth Work Convention (2015), ), available at http://pjp-eu.coe.int/en/web/youth-partnership/eywc-website-declaration
See also: Knowledge-based youth policy, evidence-based youth policy, youth work
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
If you wish to suggest other glossaries,
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