Glossary on youth
Identity refers to the sense of self, of personhood, of what kind of person one is. Even if identities tend to be seen as being fixed or given, sociologists make clear that they are fluid and changeable. Common habits, characteristics, and ideas may be clear markers of a shared cultural identity, but essentially identity is determined by difference: we feel we belong to a group, and a group defines itself as a group, by noticing and highlighting differences with other groups and cultures. Identity (or ‘self') is very much a social construction: for example feminist studies argue that gender identities must be understood in relation to the (often male) expectations of women, girls, mothers and wives. Identity is complex, because it is shared by the affiliation to different groups.
REF: Siurala, L. (2005): European framework of youth policy; Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B. (2006): The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology, Penguin Reference.
See also: Culture; diversity; gender; gender identity
Movement of people into a country to which they are not native, in order to settle there.
REF: European Commission, EMN Glossary.
See also: Migration
Inclusion is a term used widely in social and educational policymaking to express the idea that all people living in a given society should have access and participation rights on equal terms. This means on the one hand that institutions, structures and measures should be designed positively to accommodate diversity of circumstances, identities and ways of life. On the other hand, it means that opportunities and resources should be distributed so as to minimise disadvantage and marginalisation.
In the sphere of European youth work and nonformal education, inclusion is considered as an all-embracing strategy and practice of ensuring that people with fewer opportunities have access to the structures and programmes offered.
REF: European Commission: Commission Staff Working Document accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, COM (2009) 200 - 27 April 2009: Youth - Investing and Empowering. EU Youth Report.
See also: citizenship; marginalisation; nonformal education; participation; social exclusion; youth work
- Informal Learning
Informal learning, from the learner's standpoint at least, is non-purposive learning, which takes place in everyday life contexts in the family, at work, during leisure and in the community. It does have outcomes, but these are seldom recorded, virtually never certified and are typically neither immediately visible for the learner nor do they count in themselves for education, training or employment purposes. APEL systems are one way in which the outcomes of such learning can be made more visible and hence open to greater recognition.
REF: Chisholm, L. (2005): Bridges for Recognition Cheat Sheet: Proceedings of the SALTO Bridges for Recognition: Promoting Recognition of Youth Work across Europe, Leuven-Louvain.
See also: Accreditation; APEL; certificates; certification; nonformal learning; nonformal education
In everyday use, the term frequently connotes the social integration of foreigners, migrants, minorities or of persons living with disabilities on equal terms with the mainstream or majority. Currently, European socio-political discourses on integration are focusing above all on linguistic and religious issues arising from immigration from third countries, especially (but by no means only) from world regions beyond Europe.
Opposite to assimilation, integration asks not for the abandoning and denying the own culture but implies a conjunction of different cultures. Integration is necessarily (at least) a two-way process, so minorities and majorities (whose composition shifts according to what is in the foreground) have to negotiate multiple reconciliations in order to create together a mutually pleasing synthesis.
Integration revokes the situation of exclusion and separation. Integration is a dynamic, continuing process of joining and merging.
REF: European Commission, DG Integration and Home Affairs, (among other documents: European Commission: Commission Staff Working Paper accompanying the Communication from the Commission COM(2011) 455 - 20.7.2011: “European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals”).
See also: Community cohesion; culture; cultural differences; cultural diversity; immigration; migration
Inter-religious means any relation between two or more different religions and /or faiths. This is different to intra-religious which refers to the relation between different confessions of one religion/faith.
The term inter-religious dialogue refers to any cooperative and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions, (i.e. "faiths") on personal as well as on institutional level. Mutual understanding and respect for the other's belief while remaining true to the own faith is the basis for inter-religious dialogue.
The Berlin Declaration on Interreligious Dialogue of the European Council of Religious Leaders, one of the five regional interreligious councils, described the spirit of interreligious dialogue as emphasising both the similarities and differences of religions: "In interreligious dialogue we acknowledge that human beings of all faiths share certain experiences, needs and longings. We also acknowledge that we are different from each other in many respects and will remain different. Our religious traditions have formed different social rules and models which sometimes contradict each other. One aim of interreligious dialogue is to reduce false perceptions of difference and culture gaps, while we respect that something about our dialogue partner will necessarily remain other (or even alien) to us."
REF: European Council of Religious leaders' Berlin Declaration on interreligious dialogue.
See also: Culture; intercultural dialogue
Concerning or representing different cultures.
REF: European Commission, EMN Glossary.
See also: Culture; cultural differences; cultural diversity
- Intercultural Competence
Intercultural competences (ICC) are the ability to work/interact well across cultures.
In the framework of European youth work, ICC refers to the “qualities needed for a young person to live in contemporary and pluralistic Europe. It enables her/him to take an active role in confronting social injustice and discrimination and promote and protect human rights. ICC requires an understanding of culture as a dynamic multifaceted process. In addition, it requires an increased sense of solidarity in which individual fear of the other and insecurity are dealt with through critical thinking, empathy, and tolerance of ambiguity”.
REF: Salto Youth, Intercultural Competence.
See also: Discrimination; culture; empathy; human rights; youth work
- Intercultural Dialogue
In its White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, the Council of Europe talks about intercultural dialogue as "an open and respectful exchange of views between individuals, groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage on the basis of mutual understanding and respect. It operates at all levels – within societies, between the societies of Europe and between Europe and the wider world". Similarly, and after recognising 2008 as the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, the European Commission has coined this term as "an instrument to assist European citizens, and all those living in the European Union, in acquiring the knowledge and aptitudes to enable them to deal with a more open and more complex environment". In the online page dedicated to intercultural dialogue by the European Commission, it is defined as “the exchange of views and opinions between different cultures […] and seeks to establish linkages and common ground between different cultures, communities, and people, promoting understanding and interaction”.
The value of youth work and youth organisations is particularly recognised as essential to advance intercultural dialogue in a non-formal education context. Such structures often succeed in reaching out and giving a voice and an opportunity to young people who are often marginalised, giving them a chance to engage in dialogue and in generating greater solidarity and opportunities for social cohesion within neighbourhoods and communities.
Engaging in constructive intercultural dialogue from an early age can set the tone for greater understanding, respect and participation for later, be it in the personal or professional spheres.
REF: Council of Europe (2008): White Paper on intercultural Dialogue. “Living together as equals in dignity”, Strasbourg, Martinelli, S. and Taylor, M. (eds.) (2000): Intercultural learning T-kit No. 4, Strasbourg.
See also: Council of Europe; cultural diversity; culture; European citizenship; European Commission; participation; social cohesion; youth organisations; young people; youth work
- Intercultural Learning
Intercultural learning refers to the process of becoming more aware of and better understanding one's own culture and other cultures around the world. The aim of intercultural learning is to increase international and cross-cultural tolerance and understanding. The learning process itself is a constant movement of cultural awareness – from the freedom and comfort of expecting others to be like oneself, to the shock and constraint of one's emotions and projections when they prove not to be. The Council of Europe Youth Sector is a pioneer in developing intercultural learning as a pedagogical tool (see Intercultural Learning,T-kits, and the European Federation of Intercultural Learning.
REF: Siurala, L. (2005): European framework of youth policy
See also: Council of Europe; culture; intercultural; interculturality
Interculturality describes a set of multi-faceted processes of interaction through which relations between different cultures are constructed, aiming to enable groups and individuals to forge links between cultures based on equity and mutual respect. It is also linked with the idea of hybrid identities and fusion cultures, in which people and groups create and recreate new cultural patterns that take up elements of formerly distinct and separated norms, values, behaviours and lifestyles.
REF: Adapted from Leclercq, Jean-Michel (2003): Facets of interculturality in education, Strasbourg.
See also: Cultures; equity; intercultural; intercultural learning
- Intergenerational Contract
The intergenerational contract describes the fictitious contract between generations to value the former generations by ensuring a form of pension system within a society. It refers to the understanding of society as having a social contract between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are not born. It also refers to the concept of intergenerational justice elaborated by Rawls and also by Jonas.
A state pension fund where the current working generation finances the pensions of the retired generation has direct implications on intergenerational justice. This is expressed through the discussion of a (fictional) contract between generations.
REF: Herdt, J. (2013): Beyond the intergenerational Social Contract, in: Reflections; Kluth, W. (2011): Intergenerational Justice, in: Online-Handbook Demography, Berlin Institute.
- Intergenerational dialogue
Demographic ageing is an issue for all generations. The challenge for future growth in the EU requires a perspective that spans the life course of individuals and that addresses their labour market needs throughout their working lives. At the same time as the EU seeks to prolong working lives, young workers are struggling to gain a foothold into work, as the sluggish economy is conspiring with structural labour market problems to impede their entry. Intergenerational dialogue refers to political and policy processes to deal with the situation so that all generations, all age groups would feel they have not been treated unfairly.
REF: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2012): Intergenerational solidarity, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union.
- International Youth Day
The United Nations’ International Youth Day is celebrated on 12 August each year to draw attention to youth issues worldwide and recognize efforts of the world’s youth in enhancing global society. It also aims to promote ways to engage young people in becoming more actively involved in making positive contributions to their communities. During International Youth Day, concerts, workshops, cultural events, and meetings involving national and local government officials and youth organisations take place all around the world.
On 17 December 1999, in its resolution 54/120, the United Nations General Assembly endorsed the recommendation made by the World Conference of Ministers Responsible for Youth (Lisbon, 8-12 August 1998) that 12 August be declared International Youth Day.
REF: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 54/120 (1999), available at http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/54/120
See also: International Volunteer Day; UN Secretary-General’s Envoy on Youth
‘Intersex’ is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside. Or a person may be born with genitals that seem to be in-between the usual male and female types—for example, a girl may be born with a noticeably large clitoris, or lacking a vaginal opening, or a boy may be born with a notably small penis, or with a scrotum that is divided so that it has formed more like labia. Or a person may be born with mosaic genetics, so that some of the person’s cells have XX chromosomes and some of them have XY.
Although we speak of intersex as an inborn condition, intersex anatomy does not always show up at birth. Sometimes a person is not found to have intersex anatomy until she or he reaches the age of puberty, or finds himself an infertile adult, or dies of old age and is autopsied.
REF: Intersex Society of North America
See also: Gender; gender identity; LGBTQI
The exhaustive lifelong learning programme glossary provides definitions of terminology used within the context of this programme (European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture)
This glossary contains 233 terms relating to European integration and the institutions and activities of the EU. The definitions explain how the individual terms have evolved and provide references to the Treaties, if necessary. Historical background, how the institutions work, what the procedures are, what areas are covered by a Community policy - the answers to these questions and many others can be found by following these links. The definitions are available in the eleven languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 May 2004 (Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish). The official languages of the new Member States (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian and Slovak) will be added as and when resources allow.
Cedefop's new glossary of terms on quality in education and training is meant to promote communication and understanding between countries. It is intended for all stakeholders in education and VET, researchers; experts; those involved in improving learning curricula; and education and training providers. The glossary takes into account recent EU policy developments, including the creation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) and the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET).
This is a Glossary focusing on terms used in the context of European youth work. It is divided into 3 main categories :
- Training terminology
- Youth in Action Programme Jargon
- European Institutions and Structures
The UP2YOUTH-Glossary clarifies core concepts of the Up 2 Youth research project and is complementary to our own glossary . It informs on their origin, their use and the way they relate to one another. It has to be regarded as work-in-progress, and reflects the state of dicussions in this project.
The Juvenile Justice Glossary has been developed by the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice (IPJJ), a coordination group mandated by the United Nations Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). The IPJJ works to change the situation of the estimated 1.1 million children who are deprived of their liberty worldwide (UNICEF, 2008), by facilitating and enhancing the coordination of technical assistance in juvenile justice reform.
GLOSSARIES IN OTHER LANGUAGES
- German Youth Institute
The section Wissen A-Z provides in depth explanations of some concepts with relevance to youth policy and youth research (in German only)
- LAGO (in German only)
The glossary of the Working Group on Open Youth formation of Baden-Württemberg (Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Offene Jugendbildung Baden-Wütrttemberg) explains concepts used within the field of youth work and non-formal learning in Germany.
- Europasprecht (in German only)
This glossary explains concepts and terminology used by the European Institutions especially in the European Youth field.
- Glossar zentraler Begrifflichkeiten Interkulturalität (in German only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Institut für Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Didaktik e.V. (IIKD).
- Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit e.V. (in German only)
The glossary of the Centre for Information and documentation of work against racism explains concepts and terminology linked to racism, right wing extremism, intercultural perspectives and migration processes in their relation to young people with and without migration background in Germany.
- Aulaintercultural (in Spanish only)
A glossary of intercultural learning concepts provided by the intercultural education website Aula.
- Interculturaliseren (in Flemish only)
A glossary of intercultural concepts provided by the Flemsih Departement of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
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